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Baldwin, M. W. (ed.) / Volume I: The first hundred years
(1969)

XV: The Second Crusade,   pp. 463-512 PDF (5.7 MB)


Page 473

Ch. XV THE SECOND CRUSADE 473 10 Otto of Freising, Gesta, I, 38; Annales
Rodenses (MGH, SS., XVI), p. 8; Ephrairn barJakob; Epistolac Bernardi (FL
CLXXXII), 363, 365, 57o J. Greven, "Die K├Âlnfahrt 
fled before him, and countless numbers were enrolled in the cru sade. On
his return, however, Bernard again received complaints about Radulf, this
time from the archbishop of Mainz. Escaping Bernard's orbit, the monk had
gone into Germany in August to continue his inflammatory preaching and to
arouse the people of Cologne, Mainz, Worms, and Speyer against the Jews.
Once more Bernard attempted to quell Raduif by a letter of condemnation to
be read in public. When this made little impression the abbot of Clairvaux
widened the scope of his enlistment by writing directly to the affected groups
in Speyer and Cologne in an effort to in corporate them into an orderly and
useful army. Complimenting them on their zeal for the work of God, he called
on them to abjure their private wars and the persecutions of the Jews in
order to take the cross and participate in the spiritual rewards of the army
of Christ. With his customary desire for an orderly expedition, he recalled
Peter the Hermit and his ill-fated army as a horrible example and told the
Germans not to listen to unauthorized preachers, not to set out before the
main army was ready to go, and not to choose leaders unless they were experienced
military men who could keep the army strong and well-disciplined. 
 Letters, however, continued to be less effective than Raduif's fiery harangues.
In late October St. Bernard went to Germany to preach the crusade in person
and to stop Radulf's activities once and for all. As enrollment in the crusade
had spread, St. Bernard's ideas of its scope had widened, too, and while
following and en couraging the popular demand he apparently began to hope
to unite all Christendom against the Moslems. Hence, after encoun tering
Radulf in Mainz and sending him back to the cloister, Bernard went on to
Worms and other cities, arriving at the end of November in Frankfurt, where
Conrad III of Germany was holding court. Ostensibly he came to discuss a
truce between Albero of Trier and Henry of Namur with a view to their partici
pation in the crusade; but he was also eager to enlist Conrad, since in Bernard's
expanding plans the emperor was the logical strong leader for the Germans
then being recruited. Conrad refused. Mo mentarily discouraged, Bernard thought
of returning to Clairvaux and the French phase of the crusade, but the bishop
of Constance prevailed upon him to preach the crusade to the Swiss, a course
approved by the other bishops and by Conrad, who was not hostile to the idea
of raising recruits in German territory. 10 


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