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Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume IV: The art and architecture of the Crusader states
(1977)

VII: Painting and sculpture in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, 1099-1291,   pp. 251-280 PDF (16.3 MB)


Page 273

Ch. VII PAINTING AND SCULPTURE 273 
their convent church was going on in the 1170's. In addition, just outside
the main entrance to the Uaram from Temple Street the cru sader church of
St. Gilles was erected. 
 After the return of the Haram to Islam in 1187 some of these Christian buildings
were dismantled. As a result today one finds ex tensive fragments of crusader
sculpture in the Uaram. In particular there are concentrations in the Aqsâ
mosque (pls. Villa and b), in the Dome of the Rock, and in the entry area
of the Bãb as-Silsilah (pl. lXb), along with scattered fragments elsewhere
as in the minbar (pulpit) of Burhãn-ad-Din (pl. Xd) and in the Bãb
Hittah (pl. Xc). Some pieces have also made their way to various museums
(pl. VIIb), and two extraordinary works were found in Latrun and later taken
to Istanbul (pl. Xla). Unlike the sculpture from the Holy SepulcherHospital
complex ateliers, much of this sculpture with its beautiful "wet-leaf" foliage
is quite unified in style. Yet despite its obvious high quality it has not
been possible to trace any clear development in its form; nor can we be sure
to which buildings it belonged or even when it was done. 
 The sculpture in the Bãb as-Silsilah, including the portion of the
rose window in the Sabil of Suleiman(drinking fountain; pl. IXb), does not
belong to the main corpus of the "wet-leaf" sculpture (with two frag mentary
exceptions). Fabre's old suggestion that these carvings may have belonged
to the church of St. Gilles still seems the best.32 In deed, foundations
for a cruciform crusader building have now been found nearby, north of Wilson's
arch. And the rose window in the Sabil is an early type, with round arches,
diminutive columns, and a carved floral design at the center. 
 As for the "wet-leaf" acanthus sculpture, the variety of surviving pieces
has so far defied explanation. Strzygowski's proposal that some of the small-scale
pieces were used for the sarcophagus of Bald win V is a possibility.33 Clearly
most of the extant material was used for larger-scale architecture (pls.
Villa, Xd, and XIa) or its decora tion (pis. VIIb, VIIIb, Xc). For these
the destroyed Templar build ings or the Augustinian monastery are possible
sources. 
 In regard to dating, the lovely sinuous form of the "wet-leaf" 
 32. Fabre, "La Sculpture provençale en Palestine au XHe siècle,"
Echos d'Orient, XXI (1922), 50. 
 33. J. Strzygowski, "Ruins of Tombs of the Latin Kings on the Haram in Jerusalem,"
Speculum, XI (1936), 499 ff.; see above, p. 91. It should be noted that Elzear
Horn sup posed the tomb he drew was that of Baldwin V because it was "so
small" (Ichnographiae monumentorum Terrae Sanctae (1 724-1 744), 2nd ed,
tr. E. Hoade, SBF: Publications, No. 15 [Jerusalem, 1962], pp. 74-75 and
fig. 10). Many of the fragments Strzygowski cites are too large and not appropriate
for the "furniture" he refers to. 


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