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Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume IV: The art and architecture of the Crusader states
(1977)

VII: Painting and sculpture in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, 1099-1291,   pp. 251-280 PDF (16.3 MB)


Page 272

 272 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES 
dimensional Corinthian capital into a two-dimensional pattern and introduces
a wide range of geometric form such as the pierced spiral volutes (pl. XIIIb).
No other major crusader church received such charmingly simple ornament,
but other crusader buildings have deco ration clearly informed by the same
love of abstract form. In the cloister of the Holy Sepulcher is one example
(pl. Va). The church of St. Abraham in the Haram at Hebron (pl. XVa) has
many clustered capitals in the main nave (pl. XVb) which translate foliate
capitals into vigorous ornament. 
 Flora and fauna often appear together in capitals, as already seen in the
example from the church of St. James. Sometimes the animals dominate the
design, as do the griffins on capitals of the aedicule of the Ascension (pl.
Vd) or the St. Peter Gallicante double capital, which also has scowling demons'
heads (pl. VIb). The most interest ing versions blend flora and fauna together.
In the Aqsa mosque, the upper double capital on twisted columns intertwines
birds and plants to express the unity of nature in a characteristic Romanesque
manner (pl. IXa). On the west side of the Qubbat al-Mi'raj are paired capitals
(pl. Xb). In the interior, to the left, there are the extraordin ary fan-shaped
leaves Enlart compared to a capital in the church of St. Julien at Donzy-le-Pré.31
To the right, partly destroyed, are fighting birds composed to suggest the
dynamic vitality of nature to be seen in their sinuous vine-like poses as
a parallel to the explosive design of the plants on the companion piece.
 These examples of crusader sculpture on the Uaram ash-Sharif bring us to
the second major center in the city of Jerusalem. Most of the crusader work
found on the Haram is, except in the Qubbat al Mi'raj, not in situ, but on
materials reused by the Aiyubids, the Mam luks, or the Ottomans. The abundance
and quality of the sculpture reflects the importance of the Temple area for
the crusaders. After the conquest of Jerusalem, the royal residence was initially
located in what is now the Aqsâ mosque. The Dome of the Rock was turned
into a church, eventually dedicated in the 1140's as the Templum Domini,
though canons had been installed in 1099. A monastery served by Augustinians
was erected just to the north of the Temple platform. Meanwhile, the Templars
carried out much construction at the south end of the Uaram. Given lodgings
in a wing of the royal palace by Baldwin II, the Templars later took over
the entire com plex when the king moved to new quarters adjacent to the citadel.
The knights enlarged the Aqsã to the east and west, and building on
31. Enlart, Les Monuments des croisés, vol. I, pp. 123—124,
and album I, p1. 24, fig. 75. 


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