Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume IV: The art and architecture of the Crusader states
VII: Painting and sculpture in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, 1099-1291, pp. 251-280 PDF (16.3 MB)
Ch. VII PAINTING AND SCULPTURE 271 large size of these capitals for a relatively small church suggests that they may indeed have been reused, though if so, it is remarkable that they are in such excellent condition. 30 The same problem exists all over crusader Palestine for different types of capitals. There are fine spiky acanthus capitals, of which ex cellent examples are found in the crusader chapel at Beth Gibelin (pl. XIVb), built about 1134, and in the later church at Ramla(pl. XVIb). Many of these Byzantine-style capitals are probably reused from earlier buildings. There are the thick, curved-leaf capitals based on Levantine Early Christian models as found in the crusader churches at Gaza, Ramla, and Sebastia (pls. XVIa and b, XVIIIa), all three probably dating from the third quarter of the twelfth century. There are also diminutive versions on the lantern of the Qubbat al-Mi'rãj, probably built originally as the crusader baptistry to the Temple (pl. Xa). Few of these capitals seem to be reused material. Crusader use of older types of capitals is more often found in imi tations or reinterpretations of pre-crusader models. There are, for example, many versions of the Corinthian capital. At the Tomb of the Virgin is a handsome, more plastic interpretation of the Byzan tine spiky-leaf type (pl. Vb). The capital at St. James has lamb-like animals amidst articulated and thick curving leaves (pl. Vc). Some time after 1167 at the church of the Resurrection in Nablus, the main portal shows increased plasticity of the leaves as well as a taller, slenderer drum shape for the capital (pl. XVIIb). But when the cru saders decorated the entries to the Grotto in the church of the Na tivity about the same time, they reverted to a more conservative, leafy-style capital reminiscent of the façade of the Holy Sepulcher (pl. XIVa). On the pulpit of Burhan-ad-Din on the Temple platform there are crusader capitals in the southwest corner which reinterpret an earlier Byzantine round-bodied exemplar (pl. Xd). All these varia tions of Corinthian-type capitals continue the classical tradition in the Holy Land through the twelfth century, and many were prob ably the work of local Christians. The distinctive western contributions in capital sculpture are to be found in other kinds of ornament. Some of this ornamentation is ab stract, some has fauna and flora, some is a unique style of foliate decoration, and some, of course, is figural sculpture. Romanesque inclinations toward abstract ornament are well represented in the west and appear also in the Latin kingdom. The austere decoration of St. Anne's church (pl. XIIIa) converts even the eminently three 30. The plan of St. Mary the Great is published by Vincent and Abel, Jerusalem nouvelle, vol. II, fasc. 4, p. 957.
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