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Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume IV: The art and architecture of the Crusader states
(1977)

VII: Painting and sculpture in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, 1099-1291,   pp. 251-280 PDF (16.3 MB)


Page 270

 270 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES 
The only comparable work appears in a group of carvings from the Hospital
area, now in the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate, such as the architectural fragment
with an archer (pl. VIIa). But here the style is quite different —
Deschamps called it Burgundian — intensely plastic with strongly linear
draperies. The zodiac cycle on the north door porch of St. Mary Latin is
badly damaged and hard to see (pl. IVa).26 But the style seen there with
elongated figures and rumpled draperies is quite different from the lintels
or the Orthodox Patriarchate group (although like the iconography it is basically
western). Yet another style is found in the modest corner console, said to
have been found near St. Mary the Great, now in the Museum of the Convent
of the Flagellation (pl. IVb). Once identified as the insignia of the Hospital
or the Kiss of Judas, this modest sculpture seems only to represent two doll-like
bearded men.27 This group of figural sculptures from closely contiguous locations
in the Holy Sepulcher-Hospital quarter, all dating from between 1125 and
1175, demonstrates that there was little interrelationship among the ateliers.
Nonetheless, each artist was surely from Europe and most, if not all, were
from France. 
 The situation with regard to non-figural sculpture is somewhat dif ferent.
The extraordinarily rich ensemble of architectural sculpture on the south
façade of the Holy Sepulcher (frontispiece), including cornices (pl.
Ia), capitals, imp osts, and tympana (pl. Ib), has recently been studied
and found to reflect long-standing local tradition from Roman times.28 The
upper cornice may in fact be reused Roman sculpture,29 but the capitals of
the Calvary door, based on Justinianic models, are probably the work of local
Christian sculptors working for the Latins. This problem of reuse as opposed
to crusader imita tion of earlier work is a thorny issue indeed. Are the
handsome capi tals found at St. Mary the Great (pl. VIa) twelfth-century
or pre-cru sader? On the one hand, the modern capitals carved for the church
of the Redeemer and based on a medieval model show the practical pos sibility
for copying, even today. On the other hand, the extremely 
 26. In view of the state of St. Mary Latin in the nineteenth century it
is remarkable that any of the sculpture is left; see the photograph published
by Vincent and Abel, Jerusalem nouvelle, vol. II, fasc. 4, fig. 396, and
above, p. 86. For the iconography of the sculpture see the descriptions in
de Vogüé, Les Eglises de Terre Sainte, pp. 258 ff., and his engravings
on p1. XVIII. Note that de Vogüé and Enlart confused St. Mary
Latin (or Minor) with St. Mary the Great (or Major), reversing the identifications
in their publications. 
27. B. Bagatti, Il Museo della Flagellazione in Gerusalemme (SBF: Jerusalem,
1939), pp. 
130-131, no. 223. 
 28. N. Kenaan, "Local Christian Art in Twelfth Century Jerusalem; part II,
The Decora tive Sculpture of the Façade of the Holy Sepulchre Church,"
Israel Exploration Journal, 
XXIII (1973), 221-229. 
29. Ch. Cotiasnon, The Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem (London,
1974), p. 60. 


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