Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume IV: The art and architecture of the Crusader states
VII: Painting and sculpture in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, 1099-1291, pp. 251-280 PDF (16.3 MB)
270 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES The only comparable work appears in a group of carvings from the Hospital area, now in the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate, such as the architectural fragment with an archer (pl. VIIa). But here the style is quite different — Deschamps called it Burgundian — intensely plastic with strongly linear draperies. The zodiac cycle on the north door porch of St. Mary Latin is badly damaged and hard to see (pl. IVa).26 But the style seen there with elongated figures and rumpled draperies is quite different from the lintels or the Orthodox Patriarchate group (although like the iconography it is basically western). Yet another style is found in the modest corner console, said to have been found near St. Mary the Great, now in the Museum of the Convent of the Flagellation (pl. IVb). Once identified as the insignia of the Hospital or the Kiss of Judas, this modest sculpture seems only to represent two doll-like bearded men.27 This group of figural sculptures from closely contiguous locations in the Holy Sepulcher-Hospital quarter, all dating from between 1125 and 1175, demonstrates that there was little interrelationship among the ateliers. Nonetheless, each artist was surely from Europe and most, if not all, were from France. The situation with regard to non-figural sculpture is somewhat dif ferent. The extraordinarily rich ensemble of architectural sculpture on the south façade of the Holy Sepulcher (frontispiece), including cornices (pl. Ia), capitals, imp osts, and tympana (pl. Ib), has recently been studied and found to reflect long-standing local tradition from Roman times.28 The upper cornice may in fact be reused Roman sculpture,29 but the capitals of the Calvary door, based on Justinianic models, are probably the work of local Christian sculptors working for the Latins. This problem of reuse as opposed to crusader imita tion of earlier work is a thorny issue indeed. Are the handsome capi tals found at St. Mary the Great (pl. VIa) twelfth-century or pre-cru sader? On the one hand, the modern capitals carved for the church of the Redeemer and based on a medieval model show the practical pos sibility for copying, even today. On the other hand, the extremely 26. In view of the state of St. Mary Latin in the nineteenth century it is remarkable that any of the sculpture is left; see the photograph published by Vincent and Abel, Jerusalem nouvelle, vol. II, fasc. 4, fig. 396, and above, p. 86. For the iconography of the sculpture see the descriptions in de Vogüé, Les Eglises de Terre Sainte, pp. 258 ff., and his engravings on p1. XVIII. Note that de Vogüé and Enlart confused St. Mary Latin (or Minor) with St. Mary the Great (or Major), reversing the identifications in their publications. 27. B. Bagatti, Il Museo della Flagellazione in Gerusalemme (SBF: Jerusalem, 1939), pp. 130-131, no. 223. 28. N. Kenaan, "Local Christian Art in Twelfth Century Jerusalem; part II, The Decora tive Sculpture of the Façade of the Holy Sepulchre Church," Israel Exploration Journal, XXIII (1973), 221-229. 29. Ch. Cotiasnon, The Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem (London, 1974), p. 60.
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