Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume IV: The art and architecture of the Crusader states
VI: The arts in Frankish Greece and Rhodes, pp. 208-250 PDF (15.7 MB)
222 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES IV the disturbed times of the thirteenth century; but its well-built pentagonal tower with its merlon battlements still standing is clearly Venetian, as is also a similar tower at the small port below. The outer enceinte, remade for artillery, is now mainly of coarse rubble, and much of the walls of the inner enceinte seems Turkish rebuilding. Haliveri has a rectangular enceinte divided by a cross-wall with a keep tower built upon it as at Bodonitsa. The masonry is of the roughest kind, and this may well be largely Frankish work. At Dystos there is a Venetian tower among the classical ruins; at Gymno two' churches and a tower, probably Venetian. Of Larmena, whose name figures so often in the medieval history of the island, there remain only a few sections of walls, filling fissures in the rock, and the bases of two towers. Naxos, the center of the Sanudo duchy, has no medieval buildings that can be clearly dated. The Jesuit father, Robert Saulger, writing at the end of the seventeenth century,15 states that Mark Sanudo on his occupation of the island built "a great square tower with walls of extraordinary thickness, with an open space round it, which in its turn was enclosed within a wall strengthened by great towers 29 or 30 feet from one another." He also built the Latin cathedral within the Kastro, which still stands but was completely rebuilt in 1915 and had already been largely restored in 1865. Today the outer enceinte of the castle can hardly be traced among the houses which have been built on and out of it. Of the main central block, however, one floor still stands, a vaulted room which recalls in scale and quality the masonry at Thebes. This may well be, though Saulger is a late and not always reliable source, part of Sanudo's original building. Of the other Naxos castles, Paliri was the original Byzantine stronghold; its solid foundations remain, blending indistinguishably with the rock on which they stand. Apanokastro, which Saulger with some probability attributes to Mark II (1262-1303), has later Venetian and Turkish rebuilding, and the walls have been flattened out for artillery bastions. The neighboring island of Paros has a medieval tower which is made largely of cross-sections of columns and is one of the most extreme examples of the reuse of classical materials. A similar account can be given of most of the islands; castle ruins crown the hills: Sant' Angelo in Corfu; the square tower in its small rectangular enceinte of Katokastro on Andros; a few churches, still distinguished by some Gothic arches and marked with Latin crosses; 15. Printed in J. K. Fotheringham, Marco Sanudo, Conqueror of the Archipelago (Oxford, 1915), pp. 113-122.
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