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Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume IV: The art and architecture of the Crusader states
(1977)

VI: The arts in Frankish Greece and Rhodes,   pp. 208-250 PDF (15.7 MB)


Page 222

 222 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES  IV 
the disturbed times of the thirteenth century; but its well-built pentagonal
tower with its merlon battlements still standing is clearly Venetian, as
is also a similar tower at the small port below. The outer enceinte, remade
for artillery, is now mainly of coarse rubble, and much of the walls of the
inner enceinte seems Turkish rebuilding. Haliveri has a rectangular enceinte
divided by a cross-wall with a keep tower built upon it as at Bodonitsa.
The masonry is of the roughest kind, and this may well be largely Frankish
work. At Dystos there is a Venetian tower among the classical ruins; at Gymno
two' churches and a tower, probably Venetian. Of Larmena, whose name figures
so often in the medieval history of the island, there remain only a few sections
of walls, filling fissures in the rock, and the bases of two towers. 
 Naxos, the center of the Sanudo duchy, has no medieval buildings that can
be clearly dated. The Jesuit father, Robert Saulger, writing at the end of
the seventeenth century,15 states that Mark Sanudo on his occupation of the
island built "a great square tower with walls of extraordinary thickness,
with an open space round it, which in its turn was enclosed within a wall
strengthened by great towers 29 or 30 feet from one another." He also built
the Latin cathedral within the Kastro, which still stands but was completely
rebuilt in 1915 and had already been largely restored in 1865. Today the
outer enceinte of the castle can hardly be traced among the houses which
have been built on and out of it. Of the main central block, however, one
floor still stands, a vaulted room which recalls in scale and quality the
masonry at Thebes. This may well be, though Saulger is a late and not always
reliable source, part of Sanudo's original building. Of the other Naxos castles,
Paliri was the original Byzantine stronghold; its solid foundations remain,
blending indistinguishably with the rock on which they stand. Apanokastro,
which Saulger with some probability attributes to Mark II (1262-1303), has
later Venetian and Turkish rebuilding, and the walls have been flattened
out for artillery bastions. The neighboring island of Paros has a medieval
tower which is made largely of cross-sections of columns and is one of the
most extreme examples of the reuse of classical materials. 
 A similar account can be given of most of the islands; castle ruins crown
the hills: Sant' Angelo in Corfu; the square tower in its small rectangular
enceinte of Katokastro on Andros; a few churches, still distinguished by
some Gothic arches and marked with Latin crosses; 
 15. Printed in J. K. Fotheringham, Marco Sanudo, Conqueror of the Archipelago
(Oxford, 1915), pp. 113-122. 


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