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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for the year 1884
([1884])

Reports of agents in California,   pp. 9-18 PDF (4.6 MB)


Page 10

10 
REPORTS OF AGENTS IN CALIFORNIA. 
Even when secured and produced in court, Indian testimony, though acknowledged
to be competent, seems to have no weight against the unsupported denial of
the 
offending liquor seller. 
The practical results of Indian education at this agency are far from encouraging.
By practical results I mean such evidences of improvement in appearance,
manners, 
character, and conduct as it is the aim of all education to create and exhibit.
Attend- 
ance at the agency school has moderately increased, but the increase is largely,
if not 
solely, owing to the increased allowance of food granted to the school and
to the 
measures taken to enforce attendance. It certainly does not denote any increased
respect or enthusiasm for education on the part of either parents or pupils.
This fact 
is established beyond any peradventure by the other fact that any decrease
in the 
allowance of food or any relaxation in the measures adopted to enforce attendance
is 
invariably and immediately followed by a diminution in the number of attending
pupils. Were the food altogether withheld and the enforcing measures removed
there 
would be no pupils. I consider the continuation of a day school at the agency
of ques- 
tionable utility. I believe the money and material assistance now devoted
to its support 
would be more profitably devoted to the maintenance of an industrial school
somewhere 
within the circle of civilization, where Indian children, separated from
their families 
and tribes, would be thoroughly instructed in useful industries suitable
to their con- 
dition in life; where they would be surrounded by examples of industry and
shown 
its advantages; and where above all they would be taught to work and make
their 
own living, and the necessity of their doing so. At agency schools where
the pupils 
return every day to their Indian homes, and are subjected to the demoralizing
tribal 
and family influences, the teacher has to contend not only against the sluggishness
and indifference of the pupils, but also against the baneful examples of
tribe and fam- 
ily. It is scarcely remarkable that in face of such odds and difficulties
mere theoret- 
ical instruction fails to create healthy and lasting impressions. The duty
of the Gov- 
ernment is towards the children exclusively. The adult Indians are"
wedded to their 
idols." 
Clothing and annuity goods continue to be issued to the Indians in proportion
to 
the amount of work they have done for the reservation or in cultivating lands
for 
their own support. The children of age to attend school receive their clothing,
&c., 
only from the school teacher. Exceptions to these rules are made in favor
of the old 
and infirm, and of those children who live at too great a distance from the
school- 
house. This course has been found to work well, although it has caused considerable
dissatisfaction, which still continues among the lazy and mendicant portion
of the 
tribe. 
The acreage of land cultivated by Indians for their own support has been
increased. 
Every encouragement and assistance possible have been afforded to those who
are 
found endeavoring, by the occupancy and cultivation of lands, to contribute
some- 
what to the support of themselves and their families. 
On account of the ancient and everlasting family animosities, feuds, and
vendet- 
tas existing, it has been found impracticable to organize and introduce the
system of 
an Indian judiciary. For the same reason the organization and employment
of an 
Indian police force have not been further attempted. Fortunately, during
the past 
year there has been but little occasion for the services of either Indian
judges or 
police force. 
Considerable time and attention were devoted during the year to the Indians
living 
on the Klamath River Reservation. These Indians for upwards of twenty years
have 
been in the somewhat anomalous condition of being reservation Indians without
having 
received any of the benefits resulting therefrom. In that time they have
neither asked 
nor received any aid or assistance from the Government, and even now ask
no favors 
from it but the simple justice of being guaranteed legal possession of their
present 
homes, tenements, and possessions. Into making this application they were
driven 
by the white man's aggressions and his supercilious disregard of the Indian's
rights. 
Under your instructions allotments of lands in severalty on the reservation
were 
made in August, 1883. This work would have been completed in June, 1884,
when I 
visited the reservation for that purpose, but it was found impossible to
proceed with- 
out the field-notes of the survey, from which the General Land Office map
furnished 
for my guidance was compiled. There are grave doubts entertained by well-in-
formed parties as to said survey having ever been carefully and thoroughly
made. 
It is certain that many of the marks and stakes noted on the map cannot be
discov- 
ered, and that others of them are incorrect and misleading. The field-notes
were 
necessary to identify the marks, &c., to enable the allotments to be
described with 
accuracy, and to decide with certainty as to the genuineness and accuracy
of the 
survey. The map itself is wrong in many places. For this reason the descriptions
of the allotments made and reported to you in August, 1883, are not to be
depended 
upon, and should be carefully revised before being submitted for Congressional
ac- 
tion. The troubles that would hereafter arise from any inaccuracies or errors
in the 
descriptions of Indian allotments cannot be overestimated or ignored. Nothing


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