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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for the year 1884
([1884])

[Reports of agents in Arizona],   pp. 1-9 PDF (4.3 MB)


Page 8

REPORTS OF AGENTS IN         ARIZONA. 
that they succeeded, with no other constraint than the moral suasion employed
by the 
agency farmer and his assistant, in turning sufficient water upon their crops
to supply 
in most cases all needed irrigation. 
The extent and efficiency of the work is shown in the bountiful harvest of
barley 
and wheat already completed, and in the numerous fields of growing corn,
that 
promise an abundant yield, together with a liberal supply of melons, pumpkins,
&c. 
The barley sold amounts to 370,000 pounds, for which they received $2.50
per 100 
pounds, aggregating the handsome sum of $9,375. At least 25,000 pounds of
barley is 
still unsold, making a total yield of 400,000 pounds. The quantity of wheat
raised 
cannot be exactly arrived at as none of it has been sold, being held for
home consump- 
tion, but it may be safely estimated to amount to 50,000 pounds. Of corn
the agency 
farmer estimates that about 250 acres have been planted, which may be fairly
esti- 
mated to produce 250,000 pounds. When we consider the fact that the agency
farmer 
has had no police force to assist him in bringing in the indolent, of whom
there have 
been many, to aid in the work, but has had to rely solely on the voluntary
efforts of 
the Indians to continuous labor in the fields, it becomes a matter of surprise
that so 
much has been accomplished. With the aid of an efficient police force under
the con- 
trol of an agency employ6 in full sympathy with the agent, in his endeavor
to compel 
united action on the part of the Indians, it will be an easy matter to secure
greatly 
increased production during the next year. 
That the Apaches at this agency can be made entirely self-sustaining at an
early 
period in the future, I have no doubt, but to accomplish this the divided
authority 
that has worked with so much friction during the past year must be discontinued
and 
the Indians taught to rely on the agent for instruction, and to render him
cheerful 
obedience. In my last annual report I called attention to the anomaly of
a dual gov- 
ernment as it then existed, and the experience of the past year only serves
to con- 
firm my judgment in that regard. In this connection I earnestly recommend
that full 
authority be restoted to the agent to exercise police control of all the
Indians depend- 
ent on the agency for supplies, and charged with the duty of keeping the
peace on 
the reservation, and preventing the Indians from leaving it except with his
consent. 
The Indians in the vicinity of the agency are well disposed and easily managed.
The 
presence of a military officer clothed with such power as is assumed by the
captain 
commanding at San Carlos under the agreement of July 7, 1883, and backed
by a 
strong military force, serves only to demoralize the Indians and deprive
the agent of 
an influence over them that is inseparable from successful management. I
therefore 
earnestly urge that the agreement above referred to, so far as it applies
to the Indians 
living peaceably near the agency, and conducting farming operations under
the direc- 
tions of the agent, be canceled, and that the lawful authority of the agent
be re- 
stored. 
The question of the location of the Indians occupying this reservation within
an 
area easily accessible to tire agent should be settled with as little delay
as possible, 
so that the different bands may have an allotment of land and be made to
feel that 
they possess a more secure title to their homes than is vested in the stronger
as against 
the weaker claimant. Of the 4,500 Indians (not including Chiricahuas) living
on the 
reservation, about 1,500 have withdrawn from the vicinity of the agency and
are lo- 
cated in the hill country around Fort Apache and Cibicu, some 50 or 60 miles
distant 
from this point, where they are living under exclusive military government.
If this 
condition of affairs is to continue, a line should be drawn between these
mountain 
bands and those that have elected to remain at the agency, and such a policy
adopted 
and pursued by the Interior Department towards the Indians it feeds and clothes,
and 
who are entirely peaceable and inclined to industry, as will inspire them
withbrespect 
for the agent and confidence in his ability to enforce it. 
The coal fields near the southern line of the reservation continue to attract
general 
attention. Of their value little is yet known. If as extensive in area, and
as val- 
uable in quality as is claimed by their discoverers, and the sanguine speculators
who 
seek to possess them, every reasonable encouragement should be offered to
capital- 
ists who may desire to develop them. But if "there are millions in it"
for the white 
man whose property it is not, the claims of the Indians, whose it is, should
be pro- 
tected. To do this successfully it will lie necessary to retain the present
southern 
boundary of the reservation, and continue Department jurisdiction over the
territory 
in which the work of mining may hereafter be conducted. A reasonable royalty
should, in my opinion, be exacted for all the coal taken out, and the proceeds
applied 
for the benefit of the Indians. To the plan of segregation urged by interested
par- 
ties, I am unalterably opposed. By such an act the Indians would be deprived
of 
whatever value may attach to property now admitted to be theirs; the limits
of the 
reservation would be circumscribed so as to admit what may soon become a
populous 
community of whites in close proximity to the agency, with all the allurements
of 
vice so congenial to the Indian's taste, and which the agent would have no
power to 
prevent. Mr. Bannon, a commissioner appointed by the Hon. Secretary of tbe
In- 
nior, under a recent act of Congress, is now on the ground for the purpose
of in- 


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