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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for the year 1884
([1884])

[Reports of agents in Arizona],   pp. 1-9 PDF (4.3 MB)


Page 7

REPORTS OF AGENTS IN ARIZONA. 
and keeping them from giving their clothing, bedding, and kitchen furniture
to their 
friends that come around the agency. If you punish ayouth for these offenses
he or 
she will run away to their people, and you have no authority to force them
back. It 
has cost $6,000 to carry on this boarding school the past year. If that amount
was 
expended for five or six day-schools, paying teachers a good salary, I think
the In- 
dians would receive more benefit, while the girls would be under the care
of their 
mothers at night. I am well aware that there are some enthusiastic "1
cranks" who 
will say, "Oh, my! you should have watched them more closely, poor things!"
And 
to such I want to say, "Round up 75 or 100 fleas in your beautiful homes,
and after 
feeding them well let them out for exercise two or three times a day, and
see if you can 
keep track of all of them." After their experience in this direction
for a few months 
they will then have taken their first lesson and will know something about
keeping 
track of Indian children on a reservation. My objections do not extend to
such 
schools as those of Carlisle, Hampton, or Forest Grove, which are removed
from agen- 
cies and where the buildings are so arranged that the sexes may be kept apart,
for of 
such schools I am heartily in favor. 
We would mention the Papagos more fully, but when we think of the reports
that 
agents-special agents and inspectors-have been sending in for the last eight
or ten 
years, and nothing as yet ever coming of them, we conclude that it is a waste
of of- 
fice material, and economy is the first thing an agent should learn. Therefore
we 
will content ourself by simply referring those who are interested in agents'
reports or 
in Papago Indians to our former report and those made by our predecessors,
and 
when the supply is exhausted the agent for the Papagos, if he is a man of
energy, 
will be equal to the emergency and have another in waiting. 
Respectfully submitted. 
A. H. JACKSON, 
United States Indian Agent. 
The COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 
SAN CARLOS AGENCY, ARIZONA, August 15, 1884. 
SIR: I have the honor to submit to your consideration my second annual report.
For the first time in the history of this agency, a year of uninterrupted
peace, free 
from exciting rumors of threatened outbreak, has been realized. Reservation
Indians, 
who but a little more than a year ago were cause of serious alarm to the
people of Ari- 
zona and of anxious solicitude to the Government, are now walking in the
paths of 
peace, with a steady step and advancing rapidly to a condition of comparative
civili- 
zation. To discuss fully the causes that have led to this changed condition
of affairs 
would require more space than I can reasonably claim. If it is true, as asserted
by 
many, that the cause of Indian outbreaks may be traced to bad faith and injustice,
contentment and friendly relations with citizens should be accepted as evidence
that 
these incentives to hostility do not exist. 
Since the date of my last report, substantial progress has been made. In
December 
of last year 596 cows and 23 bulls were purchased from the best herd of high-grade
cattle in Arizona. The present excellent condition of these cattle is sufficient
evi- 
dence of careful attention on the part of the Indians to whom they were issued,
and 
the great natural increase since the purchase was made fully establishes
the fruitful- 
ness of the cows. A careful investigation of several of the more convenient
herds, 
amounting in the aggregate to 600 cows, including about 400 of the purchase
referred 
to, discloses the fact that 70 per cent. of the number have calves by their
sides, and 
many others give evidence of an increase at an early day. 
Early in January active operations were commenced in farming, and commendable
zeal was displayed by many of the Indians in the prosecution of the work.
Under 
the direction of the agency farmer new ditches were taken out, dams constructed
and 
repaired, fields cleared and plowed, and grain sowed. The quantity of land
prepared 
for cultivation was largely in excess of any previous year, and the Indians
were 
stimulated with high hopes of success. In February and March unusually heavy
rains caused disastrous floods in the Gila and San Carlos Rivers, seriously
damaging 
many farms and entirely destroying others. The misfortune was quite disheartening
for a time, to the sufferers, but most of them set to work with renewed energy
to re- 
pair their losses. Every irrigating dam on the reservation had been destroyed,
head- 
gates were washed away and serious damage done to ditches. Fourteen new dams
have since been constructed across the San Carlos River, a stream averaging
about 
100 feet in width requiring dams 6 feet high; and six across the Gila, whose
deep 
swift waters present at all times a formidable obstacle to work of the character
required. It is highly commendable of the energy and perseverance of the
Apaches 


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