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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for the year 1874
([1874])

Information, with historical and statistical statements, relative to the different tribes and their agencies,   pp. 23-[84] PDF (29.5 MB)


Page 32

32    REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 
have raised 2,300 bushels of corn, 400 bushels of potatoes, 50 bushels of
-onions, and 100 bushels each of turnips and beans, and have passed a 
comfortable year, with plenty of clothing and food. They spend about 
half the year in hunting and trapping and begging among the whites, 
cling with great tenacity to their old superstitions, and are opposed to
schools. Until the question of their removal to the Indian Territory, 
which is constantly being agitated among them, is decided, very little 
advance in civilization will be made. 
NEBRASKA. 
GREAT NEMAHR    AGEM.-The Towas, numbering 226, and the Sac 
andFox of Missouri, numbering 97, are located on adjacent reserva- 
tions, containing 16,000 and 14,411 acres, respectively, in the southwest-
ern corner of Nebraska, and are included in one agency. The Sac and. 
Fox reservation has been surveyed, and is to be sold in trust for said. 
Indians under the act of June 10, 1872. 
The Towas have adopted citizens' dress, nearly all live in houses, (seven
of which were built by themselves during the year,) and are engaged in 
farming. Their reservation is very fertile, and adapted either to tillage.
or grazing. They have cultivated 700 acres, averaging over 3 acres to 
an individual, 200 of which were broken this year, and ifave raised 2,500
bushels of wheat, equivalent to over 2 barrels flour to each individual 
of the tribe. This is their second year in wheat-raising, and the crop -
shows an increase of 500 per cent. over last year. By reason of drought 
and grasshoppers, their other crops were almost an entire failure, though
they have saved 2,500 bushels corn, 1,000 bushels oats, 250 bushels 
barley, 600 bushels potatoes, besides a supply of onions and beans for 
each family. They own 242 horses and mules, 219 cattle, and 360 hogs. 
A code of laws has been adopted by the Jowas in council, and a police 
force established, consisting of five men, at salaries of $40 per annum,
to 
be paid from the annuity-fund of the tribe, from which action good re- 
sults are already manifest. By another regulation of their own a fino 
of $3 is imposed on any member of the tribe who becomes intoxicated, 
to be deducted from his per-capita share in the annuity payment. As 
the result of this action on their part, together with the efforts of the
agent in the same direction, drunkenness has almost entirely ceased 
among these Indians. The Sac and Fox are much more addicted to 
intemperance, but by the efforts of their chief they have greatly im- 
proved in this respect. It has been almost impossible for the agent to 
obtain the conviction and punishment of parties selling liquor to his 
Indians. 
A large quantity of timber has been stolen from this reservation dur- 
ing the year by lawless white men. The supply of timber on this reserve 
will last these Indians, even with economical use, only a few years; but
there are no laws by which they can be protected from being plundered 
by their white neighbors in Nebraska, who act on the theory that an 
Indian has no rights that a white man is bound to respect. 
In education these tribes are far in advance of most of their race. 
Out of the 323 Indians 50 can read in English, and a prosperous school 
of 52 pupils is maintained, with an average attendance of 48. A Sab- 
bath-school, in which the Indians are much interested, is well attended.I
Inspector O'Connor, under date of :November 1, 1873, reports as fol- 
lows: 
The lowas appear to boe getting along as well as any Indians at any agency.
They are 
industrious, thrifty Indians, and thoughtful of their future interests in
a degree rarely 


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