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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for the year 1874
([1874])

Information, with historical and statistical statements, relative to the different tribes and their agencies,   pp. 23-[84] PDF (29.5 MB)


Page 30

30   REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 
fee of the Mille Lacs reserve is restored to them. The lake abounds in 
fish and rice, and furnishes a large part of their subsistence. All 
efforts to induce them to remove to-White Earth have as yet been of 
no avail. A small band of the Mille Lacs, known as the Snake River 
Indians, are located near Brunswick Minn., on small tracts of land 
which a few of them have purchased at Government rates. They find 
work in the lumber camps, where they have the worst possible exam- 
ples set before them, and are an increasing annoyance to the settlers, 
who earnestly petition for their removal on the score of drunkenness 
and vagrancy, and yet take no steps to enforce the laws against selling 
liquor to Indians, which are openly violated among them. 
The tPembinas have been notified to remove to White Earth, on pen- 
alty of forfeiting their annuity. A few only have as yet complied, but 
these have fallen readily into line with the others in self-support by labor.
The remainder are still around Fort Pembina and on Turtle Mountain, 
Dak., leading a wretched, vagrant life. The Turtle Mountain band of 
Pembinas, living west of the line of cession of Indian lands under the 
treaty with the Red Lake and Pembina Chippewas, 1864, claim that 
they are entitled to compensation for the country which they relinquish 
when they remove to White Earth. 
LEECi LAKE AGENCY.-This includes the Pillager and Lake Winne- 
bagoshish Chippewas, living around Leech Lake, and the Mississippi 
Chippewas at White Oak Point. 
The Pillagers, 1.547 in number, live in wigwams, and subsist princi- 
pally on fish. They have a reservation of 96,000 acres, containing a few
scattered patches of arable land along the shores and inlets of the lake,
reached only by steamboat or canoe. The rest is swamp and pine lands. 
The steamboat is worn out and unsafe. A treaty stipulation, by which 
they have heretofore been provided with physician, carpenter, and 
blacksmith, expired in July last. They are forbidden by the State to 
leave their reserve for hunting, and must starve if they stay. Their 
only hope is in the sale of their pine or in large annual appropriations.
They are the most turbulent and degraded of all the Chippewas, and, 
led on and inflamed by the misrepresentations and bad whisky of de- 
signing white men, have been excited, disorderly, and defiant during a 
large part of the year, which has greatly interfered with the prosperity
of the school and with all attempts at civilization. 
The 3lississippis, at White Oak Point, numbering 763, have experi- 
enced little change during the year. They were removed to their pres- 
ent reservation of 320,000 acres in 1867, subsisted for six months, a few
log-houses were built, 40 acres plowed, (which was about half of all the
farming land on the reserve,) and then left to take care of themselves. 
Nothing can be (lone for them in their present location with any reason-
able hope of success.  A few have lately expressed a desire to remove 
to White Earth. 
RED LAKE AGENCY.-The Red Lake Chippewas, numbering 1,141, have 
a reservation around Red Lake of 3,200,000 acres, including the lake, of
which about one-third is valuable for pine and for rich farming lands on
the clearings. These Indians are each year growing in thrift and in- 
dustry, and have thus far been kept unusually free from the contaminat- 
ing influences of border civilization, but it is now becoming more and 
more difficult to keep whisky off the reserve. They have for years cul- 
tivated small patches of corn and potatoes, which, with abundance ot 
fish and some game, have enabled them to live comfortably in a sav- 
age way. Within two years, however, a desire for houses and farms 
and schools has been awakened, which has been steadily increasing. 


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