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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for the year 1905, Part I
([1905])

Reports concerning Indians in Minnesota,   pp. 227-236 PDF (4.7 MB)


Page 229

REPORTS CONCERNING INDIANS IN MINNESOTA. 
hope for the betterment of the race and their ultimate civilization rests
upon 
education, not of a part of their children, but all of them, I can not too
strongly 
recommend measures which will accomplish this end. 
Improvements recom.mended.--S mall hospitals at each of the schools, with
necessary attendants, for the care of children when ill are badly needed.
No 
room is available for separation of sick from those who are well, and the
nec- 
essary care can not be given them in dormitories occupied by other children.
It is insanitary, detrimental to the health of other children, and speedy
recov- 
ery is often retarded for lack of quiet and necessary care, which is impossible
under present conditions. 
The heating and lighting of the three small schools situated at Bena, Cass
Lake, and Cross Lake should be changed from wood stoves and kerosene lamps
to steam or hot-water system for heating and acetylene plant for lighting.
The heating by wood stoves in this northern climate is very unsatisfactory,
and lighting by kerosene lamps is poor, inconvenient, and dangerous. A change
as recommended would greatly reduce the danger of fire, which is a constant
menace during the long, cold winter. The buildings are constructed entirely
of 
wood, and would, no doubt, be completely destroyed if fire should by accident
occur. 
The Red Lake school is without a cottage for use of the employees. The 
superintendent, wife, and two children, together with nearly all the other
employees, occupy rooms in the school building. A few of the employees occupy
an old building which is situated quite a distance from the school and is
poorly 
constructed and unfit for quarters. The rooms in the school are badly needed
for use of the school and should not be occupied by the employees. A cottage
is therefore indispensable if satisfactory work is expected at this school.
Allotments.-The allotment of the Indians, except the Red Lake band, has 
been completed and schedules submitted for approval. 
Readjustment of Leech Lake allotments has improved the conditions very 
much; permission to allot cut-over lands enabled the Department to allot
full 
eighties in one tract, instead of being divided into several small tracts,
often 
miles apart. A good many changes have been made on account of overflow 
from dams and reservoirs. 
The law authorizing the sale of the western portion of the Red Lake 
diminished reservation also provided for the allotment in severalty of 160
acres to members of the Red Lake band upon the remainder of the Red Lake
diminished reservation. It also provides that an equitable adjustment of
tim- 
ber and agricultural land be made. This is practically impossible if a square
deal is indicated or expected. Between 200,000,000 and 300,000,000 feet of
valu- 
able standing pine, the property of all the band, is growing upon a limited
area, and worth many times the value of the land upon which it grows. 
No fair division of this timber is possible while standing, and allotting
of 
same would result in an unequal share being given to a limited number at
the expense of the remainder. If the pine is sold and cut under the supervision
of the Department and the proceeds credited to the individuals of the band,
share and share alike, the allotments can be made and justice done, which
is 
impossible while the disturbing element of pine enters as a factor in the
problem. 
Recommendations for sale of this timber will be made in separate commu- 
nication. 
Land payment.-The first payment to the Red Lake Chippewas for the sale 
of the western portion of their diminished reservation was made in February,
1905. The withholding of the shares of the minors, which the Indians claim
was not in accordance with the provisions of the law, created some dissatis-
faction among them. Whether their contention is right or wrong, there is
no 
doubt but the method adopted is wise and beneficial. 
Railroads.-Two railroads now building are nearing completion. The termi-
nus of one is on Red Lake, 6 miles east of the subagency, connecting with
the 
Great Northern and Minnesota and International railways at Bemidji. The 
other, a branch of the Great Northern Railway, leaves the main line at Wilton
and extends to Island Lake, near the southern boundary of the Red Lake 
Reservation. Efforts are now being made to continue the same to Red Lake
with terminus at present site of agency. 
The railroads will render supplying the agency and school much easier, ani
afford an outlet for the Indians' pine when sold. This will increase its
value 
and be worth a great deal to them. Railroads will also bring the Indian in
229 


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