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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for the year 1905, Part I
([1905])

Reports concerning Indians in Arizona,   pp. 156-180 PDF (12.1 MB)


Page 179

REPORTS CONCERNIUNG INDIANS IN ARIZONA. 
179 
most disagreeable one for every person and rendered successful work an 
impossibility. We hope for better things. 
The Havasupai Reservation was segregated from      this agency when I 
assumed charge. The last census of the Walapai tribe shows their number to
be 520, with 116 children of school age between 6 and 16 years. Comparing
this with the previous census, it shows an increase of 6, but I think there
has, 
in reality, been a decrease. The Indians are scattered along the line of
the 
Santa Fe Railway for several hundred miles and wherever they can find water.
It is exceedingly difficult under those conditions to make a strictly accurate
count, but I believe the last census to be very nearly correct. The physical
condition of the Indian is bad. 
It is a pleasure to report, though. that the Walapai are self-supporting,
having received no aid whatever from the Government during the past year.
Some of the younger Indians work for cattlemen, others work in the mines,
and those who live near towns perform many odd jobs. I fear, though, that
among the latter class the women are the greater wage-earners. While they
are self-supporting, they are in many ways far from civilization. Nearly
all 
have small, poorly constructed houses, made of anything and everything that
can be used in the construction of a house-mud, tin cans, dry-goods boxes,
poles, railroad ties, etc. 
A few of the older Indians are polygamists. Marriage and divorce have been
at the pleasure of the parties interested. During the year two legal marriages
occurred-the first so far as I know. The rule has been made that the younger
Indians, especially those who have attended school, will be compelled to
enter 
the matrimonial state in a manner recognized by law. I can not say that sen-
timent is in favor of the rule, but nevertheless it will be strictly enforced.
Neither will any Indian, old or young, be allowed to leave his wife without
good and sufficient reasons. But here, again, the scattered condition of
the 
Indians and their distance from the school militates against successful work.
The Walapai Reservation comprises 730,880 acres of the most valueless land
on earth for agricultural purposes. It is unsurveyed and unallotted. Scarcely
a dozen families live on the reservation. 
OLIVER H1. GATES, Superitendcent. 
REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT IN CHARGE OF WESTERN NAVAHO. 
TUBA, ARIZ., July 25, 1905. 
Western Navaho School is located at Tuba, Ariz., 65 miles north and 25 miles
east of Flagstaff, Ariz., our railroad station. We have a triweekly mail
from 
Flagstaff, but no regular conveyance for passengers. Livery teams can be
hired 
in Flagstaff for the trip; food and bedding must be provided, as no settlers
live 
along the road from Flagstaff to Tuba. 
School plant.-The new plant, consisting of two dormitories, employees' quar-
ters and mess hall, and other buildings, will be ready for use October 1.
The school is supplied with excellent water from a spring located three-
(luarters of a mile north of the school and at an elevation of 90 feet. The
capacity of the new plant is 75. 
Climate.-Tuba is not subject to the extremes of temperature that prevail
in 
some parts of the arid West, but for several months of each year the atmosphere
is almost entirely free from humidity. Either this or some property of the
water causes people to lose flesh very rapidly on coming here; only persons
in 
vigorous health can withstand this loss of flesh. 
History.-Tuba was named for a Hopi Indian, who claimed the principal 
spring when the Mormon emigrants first appeared on the scene. Tuba became
a convert to the Mormon faith and went on a pilgrimage to the temple, but
did 
not survive the journey. The Government purchased Tuba and the surrounding
territory from these settlers and moved this school from Blue Canyon in 1903.
The school has been located in the old buildings abandoned by the Mormons,
and has been conducted under many disadvantages. The attendance was 
greatly reduced owing to lack of suitable quarters and to other causes. 
The reservation.-The Western Navaho Reservation consists of nearly 10,000
square miles of Arizona desert. It is so arid that not more than 3,000 acres
will ever be brought under cultivation. With proper attention it can be made
to support a million sheep, which, with goats, must be the source of the
liveli- 
hood of these Indians. 
Indin .-Three tribes ot Indians are represented on this re servation aya-
I 


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