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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for the year 1905, Part I

Reports concerning Indians in Arizona,   pp. 156-180 PDF (12.1 MB)

Page 176

teach (or force, if necessary) the Indians to use the irrigating water provided
to the best advantage. All three farmers have done excellent work. 
A fairly accurate estimate of crops raised, labor performed, earnings, etc.,
given in statistical form herewith. 
k                      J. B. ALEXANDER, Superintendent. 
SAN CARLOS, ARIZ., August 20, 1905. 
The San Carlos Indian Agency is situated on the Gila Valley Globe and 
Northern Railway, in Arizona, at the confluence of the San Carlos and Gila
rivers. The reservation comprises 1,834,240 acres, mostly mountains and hilly
land. The soil in great part is very productive wherever water touches it,
and the climate is most salubrious and delightful. Nearly all of the timber
is on the northern edge of the reservation. 
The Apaches on the reservation number as follows: San Carlos, 1,053; Coyo-
tero, 530; Tonto, 560; Mohave, 50; Yuma, 2. 
There are 100 ex-students of non-reservation schools and 1,408 Indians who
use English enough for ordinary intercourse. 
The Apaches have no homes to speak of, although attached to the soil. They
move about from place to place as they secure work, taking their families
with them. 
The demand for labor has been so great on the reservation during the year
past that Indians from the adjoining reservation and Mexicans had to be 
imported to supply the demand. In railroad work the Apache becomes easily
dissatisfied if the men over him are not to his liking and changes from one
work gang to another. With no one to look after his interests his pay accounts
are often in confusion. When hot weather comes in July they quit work and
move to the mountains, remaining there until September. 
Indian farms have been limited to the scant water supply in the two rivers
which traverse this reservation. The extraordinary precipitation in Arizona
since January 3 of this year caused floods that washed away all irrigation
ditches and a number of Indian farms. Nevertheless, fields were planted 
and crops matured without irrigation. Indian farms produced this year 4,368
bushels of wheat, 8,274 of barley, and 1,400 of corn. New ditches will be
wherever practicable. Two main ditches will have to be abandoned on account
of the expense of restoration and small area to be benefited. 
The operation of the boring machine received in 1904 was successful only
in part. A 4-inch hole 300 feet deep was made at the pumping plant with 
result that a small flow was encountered at the 80-foot level and another
180 feet, neither of which rose to the surface. Boring will be resumed at
another point. 
Schools.-There are two schools on the reservation. Rice Station School, 
under a bonded superintendent, is situated at Talklai,1 2 miles from San
The capacity is 200. This school has substantial buildings, an excellent
supplied with modern equipment, and is in a prosperous condition. 
The San Carlos Boarding School is situated at the agency. Its capacity is
100 pupils. With the exception of one stone building of two stories, the
ings are of adobe, old and worn. A fire visited the school early in October,
1904, and laid waste a good part of the oldest buildings, since which time
work has been carried on in tents and temporary structures, made necessary
by the destruction of the dilapidated buildings used for that purpose. The
report of the superintendent is appended. 
Roads.-The main thoroughfare to F6rt Apache on the north leaves the Gila
Valley, Globe and Northern Railway at Talklai and passes over some stiff
to Black River, thence through foothills, a distance of 6.3 miles in all.
road was put in excellent state of repair last fall, but the winter rains
it badly. It is now in prime state. Through the enterprise of Mr. W. 0. 
Tuttle, and by authority of the Indian Office, a stage line has been established
and gives good service. 
Grazing.-Permits have been given to various cattle companies, so that now
there are about 23,755 head of stock on the reservation paying $1 per head

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