University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
Link to University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
The History Collection

Page View

United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for the year 1905, Part I
([1905])

Reports concerning Indians in Arizona,   pp. 156-180 PDF (12.1 MB)


Page 159

REPORTS CONCERNING INDIANS IN ARIZONA. 
159 
sheep in the mountains without any attention or protection, and many are
destroyed by wild animals. The experiment in cattle raising will prove a
suc- 
cess, for cattle do not require as close attention as sheep. 
In taking the annual census we have noted as carefully as possible to deter-
mine the particular Indians who are keeping and taking care of the cattle
issued to them for breeding purposes. It is gratifying to find that fully
75 per 
cent of the 400 Indians that received cattle two years ago have them yet;
about 40 per cent have the issue and the increase. Nearly all the steer calves
were slaughtered for meat before the calves were 8 months old. I have great
difficulty to prevent the killing of the young stock, and it has been necessary
to punish several offenders. As the prospects to make a living are brighter
than last year I do not anticipate so much annoyance in the future. 
These Indians have a credit of about $7,000 in the United States Treasury
from the sale of pasture to white cattlemen. This money should be expended
for more cattle for the Indians for breeding purposes. 
Agency and school buildings.-The agency buildings are in first-class con-
dition except in the sewage; these buildings have no sewer. The offices and
four other agency buildings have good electric light and water from the school
lighting and water systems. All the buildings of the agency and schools,
ex- 
cept the girls' dormitory and the Cibecu day school buildings are made of
lumber, one story in height. Five of the school buildings are practically
new, 
and they are in good condition. The girls' dormitory building at agency and
the school buildings in Cibecu Valley (day school) are made of reddish-brown
stone; the dormitory is a three-story building, and in hygienic appointment
I 
doubt that it has a superior in the service. The bakery building was finished
near the close of the term; however, we managed to have the use of the oven
during most of the school year; this oven is giving complete satisfaction
and is 
large enough for a school of 225 children. The boys' dormitories are, without
doubt, among the poorest in the service. The foundations of these old buildings
are rotting away so that new and larger buildings must be made within a year
or two. 
Water is piped into nearly all of these old buildings, and the electric-light
system has been extended from the girls' buildings to assembly and school
buildings, mess hall, and five employee rooms. 
The 75,000-gallon reservoir is situated on the mountain side about 80 feet
above the school buildings, so that ample fire protection is afforded. Allowing
50 gallons per day for each pupil for all purposes, it would not be necessary
to fill this reservoir more than once a week for a school of 200 children;
but 
for health reasons and for water for the grass and trees the reservoir is
usually 
filled three times a week. The weight of the water on one turbine furnishes
the power to run the pump and dynamo. 
Climatic changes.-The great drought of 1903 and 1904 was followed by rains
and floods, the like of which was never known by anyone now living in this
coun- 
try; the whole Territory was thoroughly soaked. Springs that had been dry
for 
three or four years have running water again. The river channels are twice
the usual size. The water changed its course in many places and carried away
the fences and ruined many of the little irrigating ditches. The public roads
were 
much damaged. The dugways for roads on the mountain sides and walls of 
canyons caused landslides that carried tons of rock with it into and some-
times over the roads. But after all the good outweighs the damages, for the
roads, fields, fences, and irrigating ditches can be repaired. The stock
industry 
has cause for renewed energy; the indications for a fruitful year are encourag-
ing. The channel of the White River at agency changed its course and took
away about 6 acres of the school garden. 
Indian police.-The police force is not usually efficient or satisfactory;
the 
main cause being the low salary paid them. They are usually unreliable in
arresting offenders wheii the misdemeanor is stealing or polygamy. They are
afraid that they may get the ill will of their people, and they sometimes
relinquish the position because compelled to do unpleasant duties. The super-
intendent and other white employees must do detective work to determine the
fidelity of the policeman. 
Frequently the police inefficiency is no fault of theirs; they have no forage
allowed their ponies. These faithful little animals must roam about in the
mountains in search of feed, and when needed they are often miles away, and
the Indian loses a great deal of time in searching for his horse. In this
place 
it would promote efficiency to reduce the force in number to six or eight
men, 
then pay them a better salary; the policeman's horse should also have the


Go up to Top of Page