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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for the year 1905, Part I
([1905])

Reports concerning Indians in Arizona,   pp. 156-180 PDF (12.1 MB)


Page 157

REPORTS CONCERNING INDIANS IN ARIZONA.                 157 
Several tons of alfalfa hay, produced on the school farm, in excess of the
quantity required to support the school and agency teams, were sold during
the 
year, this being the first time. I think, that the department has sold such
a 
product here. During all previous years this commodity had to be purchased
for subsistence of stock. 
During the spring months many Indians-for them-sowed a large area in 
alfalfa and some have since had the satisfaction of selling their first cutting
of same for a good price'to the near-by mining camps. This is the first time
in 
the history of this agency that these Indians have raised alfalfa hay to
sell 
by the wagonload. 
A portion of the main irrigation ditch was enlarged and strengthened and
several miles of new road were built and old roads repaired during the year,
by the Indians, who labored for a per diem wage in lieu of rations, thereby
increasing the efficiency of the ditch and roads and inculcating, to an extent,
the spirit of contentment among themselves. 
At the present time about 85 per cent of these Indians earn a livelihood
by 
their own exertions (school children excepted) and may be classed as self-
supporting; only 15 per cent are rationed. The rationers include the aged,
sick and infirm, and others who are incapacitated for labor. 
In former years practically all wood required for fuel at the irrigating
plant had to be hauled by the agency teams. This took several months' time,
and usually lasted from October to the following May before the needed amount
could be procured. This year the above objectionable feature was eliminated,
and in less than four weeks the Indians, without any assistance on the part
of this office by loan of teams, wagons,' etc., hauled every stick of the
150 
cords of wood purchased for use at the pumping plant with their own wagons
and teams, and subsequent to February, 1905, have hauled all wood used at
the school and agency. I consider this quite a material step forward. 
Aside from the few trivial personal altercations or disputes arising over
the 
ownership of ponies or land, and which were easily and satisfactorily adjusted
among the participants without official interference, there has been no trouble
among these Indians, neither has there been any intoxication during the year.
On the whole they have been very peaceable, law abiding, and easily governed.
The past fall and winter were remarkable for their excessive rainfall. 
Considerable damage was wrought to the old agency and school buildings; 
practically all of them, owing to their defective roofs, leak badly, and
many 
of the walls and ceilings are injured. Some of the principal buildings have
since been repaired, but their general efficiency deteriorates every year
and it 
will soon become impracticable to repair them unless active steps are taken
to reconstruct, or at least reroof, all of them. Owing to its general unfitness,
leaky, and otherwise unsanitary condition, the boys' dormitory was abandoned
as sleeping quarters for children. Your Office is sufficiently acquainted
with 
the condition of these buildings, through the representation of myself and
other officials pertaining  thereto  and  further  remarks  are  considered
unnecessary. 
Notwithstanding the curtailment of the school year on May 31, 1905, which
caused a change in our plans, this date witnessed the close of an eminently
satisfactory school year in literary, schoolroom, and industrial work, surpassing
in most instances the efforts of a year ago. Perceptible progress was made
in 
all grades, and class instruction, especially in the lower grades, was excellent.
Evening sessions, conducted by the different employees, were held every even-
ing and proved to be a most profitable and instructive feature of the school
year. 
Excepting an epidemic of colds during the winter months, there was no 
sickness of any consequence among the pupils and the general health of the
school was good. 
Industrial work was carried on in the several departments; the girls 
received good training in cooking, sewing, laundry, and housework, and the
boys 
in carpentry, gardening, and care of stock. 
The laundry machinery (washer, engine, and extractor) was installed in 
February, and the old, sloppy, and unsanitary method of doing the school's
laundry work by rubbing on boards, boiling in cauldrons, and wringing by
hand 
was entirely eliminated, giving way to the modern steam method. However,
to give practical instruction, pupils were required to do individual washings
by hand under competent supervision. 
ENOS B. ATKINSON, 
Superintendent and Special DJisbursing A jent, 


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