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(June 1951)

Ware, George W.
Porcelain, old and new,   pp. 29-35 PDF (3.9 MB)

Page 33

prisos which are still operating, particularly Meissen, are
frequently copied and similarly marked by modem fac-
tories. With experience it is possible to distinguish the
comparatively poor copies from the genuine masterpieces.
All of the old major factories, as well as most of the
mninor ones, bear the names of the cities in which they
weie established, and many of the trade marks are sym-
bolic of their home cities or their royal patrons.
IN ADDITION TO THE EIGHT major factories, at least
l 20 minor or small factories were established in Ger-
nwn provinces during the latter half of the 18th century.
These included Ansbach (1758-1860), Kelsterbach (1761-
1802), Ottweiler (1763-1775), Fulda (1765-1790), Kassel
(1766-1788) and Gutenbrunn (1767-1775), of which Ans-
bat:h and Fulda are the most outstanding.
During this period a number of commercial factories
were also established in the forests of Thuringia, where
there was an abundance of raw materials and fuel. The
principal ones are Gotha (1757), Kloster Veilsdorf (1760),
Volkstedt-Rudolstadt (1760), Wallendorf (1764), Limbach
(1772), Ilmenau (1777), Gera (1779) and Rauenstein (1783),
all of which are reported as operating to the present date.
Some of these smaller factories were started by princes,
but a majority were established as private commercial
enterprises producing wares which could be sold at a
profit in competition with other factories. Because of
commercial emphasis and the fact that most of the minor
Meissen. Lady resting from reading, by J. J. Kaendler.
About 1740.       (Courtesy, Staatliche Porzellansammiung, Dresden)
Meissen. Part of tea service, by Loewenfinck. About 1735.
(Courtesy, Victoria and Albert Museum, London)
factories opened after the general art of procelain had
fallen into decline, no great artistic contribution was
made by them. For the greater part, they followed the
production methods and styles of the older factories;
however, some turned out original high quality products.
Germany and Austria and their former territories have
a large number of porcelain factories which originated
in the 19th and 20th centuries, some of which have an
international reputation for the manufacture of good
quality utilitarian and decorative items. Although little
artistic or historical importance can be attached to prod-
ucts of the more modern establishments, amateurs and
collectors and especially dealers are usually interested
in the role they have played in satisfying popular de-
mand and stimulating general interest in porcelain.
Most of the approximately 200 porcelain factories in
Germany established in the 19th and 20th centuries are
concentrated near the source of raw materials in the
central part of Germany, primarily in North Bavaria,
Thuringia, Saxony and Silesia. The products of these
factories, some of which were established more than
100 years ago, appear in abundance in many of the
antique shops of Germany and other countries. Amateurs
will be impressed with the choicest pieces.
The best products of the well-known factories of Sitzen-
dorf, Rosenthal, Schumann, Hutschenreuther and Hein-
rich, for example, are attractive and tempting. In addi-
tion, some of the leading decorative establishments of
Dresden and manufacturers of Altwasser, Passau, Plauen,
Potschappel, Rudolstadt, Selb and other cities have pro-
duced utilitarian and decorative porcelain of good quality.
Despite the attractive appearance of many of these
pieces, they lack the painstaking workmanship of the
master modelers and decorators of the 18th century and
have limited appeal to connoisseurs. Some of the famous
old factories, including Meissen and Nymphenburg, are
still operating and producing large quantities of porce-
lain in great variety for domestic use and export.
*   *   *
Suggestions for the Amateur
AN YONE INTERESTED in collecting porcelain should
realize that this has been the hobby of countless
people in many parts of the world for more than two
centuries. It is not restricted to persons of wealth, the
JUNE 1951

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