Ware, George W.
Porcelain, old and new, pp. 29-35 PDF (3.9 MB)
Berlin. Part of tea service. About 1770. (Courtesy, Louvre Museum, Paris) Few of the Dresden decorating establishments have produced artistic porcelain, but all enjoy the prestige of their location. The word "Dresden," therefore, is a generic term which applies to any piece of porcelain painted in the city or its environs. On the other hand, there is only one Meissen factory. Meissen set the European pattern of hard-paste porcelain and left the print of its influence on the factories which followed. The second hard-paste porcelain factory, which is con- sidered a German enterprise, was founded at Vienna in 1718 by Claudius du Paquier. It was operated as a pri- vate concern until 1744, when it was taken over by the Austrian state. Under John J. Niedermeyer, chief modeler from 1747 to 1784, it produced a variety of graceful figurines and groups, including shepherds, lovers, hawk- ers hunters, musicians and all manner of allegorical and Biblical characters, primarily in rococo style, clean and fresh, with pale brown, violet and yellow pre- doominating. Konrad Sorgenthal, who directed the factory from 1784 to 1805, is responsible for the characteristic richly deco- ratesi dinner and tea services, vases and plates inspired by Greek, Roman and Egyptian models in neo-classical style. The artistic production of Vienna declined in the 19th century and the institution closed its doors in 1864 after operating for almost a century and a half. W ITTH ROYAL PATRONAGE, the third German porce- W lain factory was established at Hoechst, now a suburb of Frankfurt, in 1746. Its best period of artistic production was from 1767 to 1779, when the modeling of the great young sculptor, Johann P. Melchior, received Popular acclaim. Melchior's figurines and groups were warns, animated and often sentimental. They included religious subjects, children, pastoral and harvest scenes and mythological characters supported on grassy mound or moss-covered rock bases. The early figures were painted in pink, blue and Spotted patterns, while the later productions were in darker colors. Like the other old factories, Hoechst pro- JUNE 1951 duced tableware and other useful articles, but they were overshadowed by the fine figures of Melchior. After 50 years of operation the factory closed in 1796. The Nymphenburg factory was founded in Munich in 1747 under the protection of the Bavarian Elector, Maxi- milian III. This establishment is particularly famous for the figurines and groups modeled by Franz Anton Bustelli between 1754 and 1763. His best known works include characters from the Italian comedy, coquettish ladies in crinoline and native costumes, gay gentlemen, busts of leading personalities, children and groups of peasants and Asiatic peoples. The figurines are supported by characteristically flat thin bases which rise in flowing curves to support the whole delicately balanced com- position in a fashion never achieved by other modelers. This factory has operated to the present date in the Nymphenburg palace grounds in Munich. Unquestionably one of Germany's outstanding enterprises, Nymphenburg is the leading porcelain factory in the US Zone. The Fuerstenberg factory was founded in the castle of Fuerstenberg near Hanover in 1747 by Karl I, Duke of Brunswick, primarily to satisfy the vanity of the duke, who was envious of the other royal porcelain establish- ments. Among its modelers, Johann S. Feylner (1753-1770) Nymphenburg. Richly-decorated coffee pot. About 1765. (Courtesy, Museum fuer Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg) INFORMATION BULLETIN 31
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