Siebens, Allen C.
Europa union plebiscites, pp. -18 PDF (2.4 MB)
MANIFESTO of the Congress for Cultural Freedom 1. WE CONSIDER IT a self-evident truth that intellectual liberty is one of the inalienable rights of man. 2. Intellectual liberty implies in the first place liberty of thought and word, especially when they are in opposition to the controlling regime. Man becomes a slave when deprived of the right to say no. 3. Liberty and peace are inseparable. In all countries, regardless of the political regime, the overwhelming majority of the population fears and is opposed to war. The danger of war becomes acute when governments, by the suppression of democratic, parliamentary institutions, withhold from the majority the means of opposing war. Peace can be safeguarded only if each government submits its acts to the control of the people it governs and pledges itself to submit all measures which could endanger peace to a democratic, international discussion and to abide by the decisions reached. 4. We consider that the primary cause of the present world insecurity arises from the policy of governments who while paying lip-service to peace, refuse to accept its essential premises. History shows that wars can be prepared and waged under any kind of slogan, including that of peace. Peace campaigns which are not based on acts guaranteed to maintain the peace are comparable to counterfeit money placed in circulation for fraudulent purposes. There can be no renaissance of intellectual equilibrium and security in the world until "the black market" of peace is abolished. 5. Liberty is based on the tolerance of and the respect for divergent opinions. One cannot logically invoke the ideal of tolerance to cloak intolerance. 6. No doctrine can claim exclusive interpretation of the principle of liberty. On the contrary, we consider that the criterion of such doctrines ought to be the degree 'of real liberty accorded the individual. Furthermore, we consider that no race, nation, class or religion can claim to, represent ex- clusively the idea of liberty, or arrogate to itself the right to deny liberty to other human beings, no matter how high the ultimate ideal may be. = 7. In critical epochs, restrictions are imposed on individual liberty in the name of the real or claimed interest of the community. We consider that such restrictions must be limited to a minimum = of clearly defined areas as temporary expedients, and clearly imposed as a sacrifice. Furthermore, - measures restricting liberty must be submitted to criticism and to democratic control. Only under such conditions can we hope that extraordinary measures restricting individual liberty will not = degenerate into a permanent tyranny. E 8. IN THE TOTALITARIAN states the shackles placed on liberty are no longer considered sacrifices imposed on the population, but are regarded as the triumph of progress and the attainment of a superior civilization. We likewise consider that the concrete measures taken by these regimes are contrary to the fundamental rights of the individual and to the essential aspirations of humanity. 9. We consider the danger incorporated in these regimes to be so much the greater in view of the fact that the theory and practice of their tyrannies surpass all of the despotisms known to history. The citizen of the totalitarian state is not only forced to abstain from crime but is required to formulate all of his actions and thoughts on a prescribed model. The classic form of the "negative tyranny" has been supplanted by the "positive tyranny." Citizens are persecuted and condemned on the basis of indefinite and non-specific accusations such as being "enemies of the people" or "socially dangerous elements." 10. We are convinced that there can be no stability in the world as long as humanity remains divided into the haves and the have-nots. The defense of existing liberties and the re-conquest o_ liberties lost constitute one and the same, indivisible struggle. 11. We consider that the theory and the action of the totalitarian states are the greatest menace which humanity has had to face in the history of civilisation. We consider that indifference and neutrality with respect to this menace constitute a betrayal of the essential values of humanity and the abdication of the free spirit. Our response to the menace will determine for decades-perhaps even for generations-whether the human species is going to follow the path of the social insects E- or that of free men. 12. The defense of liberty and culture imposes upon us the duty of contributing to a culture which gives a positive answer to the revolutionary changes occurring in the world. 13. We address this manifesto to all men who are determined to defend the liberties they enjoy, to regain those they have lost, and to create new ones. +END INFORMATION BULLETIN 18 SEPTEMBER 1950 18~~~~~~~~~~'
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