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Germany (Territory under Allied occupation, 1945-1955 : U.S. Zone). Office of Military Government. Civil Administration Division. / Population changes, 1947 : U.S. Zone Germany
(1948)

Section V: internal migration,   pp. 25-32 PDF (3.6 MB)


Page 27


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TABLE XIX
CHANGES IN EMPLOYMENT IN 1947
(U.S. Zone. Including Land Bremen)
Calculated from figures published by Manpower Division, Statistical Reports
No. 10 and 15.
The decrease of employment In rural occupations in 1947 of 41,000 or
7.17 percent (Table XIX) applies only to persons gainfully employed. Farm
labor
in the U.S. Zone consists for the most part of independent farmers and their
family helpers, so that the decrease in the number of wage and salary earners
in agriculture indicates that there was a decrease in total farm labor, but
does
not show the actual size of this decrease.
The diminishing differences in the food situation between rural and
urban districts also contributed to the acceleration of migration from rural
areas to the city. The food situation for a rural person raising his own
food-
stuffs is 6till much better tham for the average urban resident living on
a
ration card. The situation of all those living ii rural areas who did not
raise
their own foodstuffs had deteriorated to about the same level as in the cities.
Formerly there-was a limited free supply of vegetables, fruit and potatoes
avail-
able there and black market prices were much lower than in the cities. In
the
course of the last two years. most of these advantages disappeared or were
great-
ly reduced because, through the influx of expellees, the number of consumers
in
rural districts increased, and also the additional food supply decreased
as a
consequence of the unusual drought in 1947.
Finally. migration to the cities increased because of the movement of
refugees. Most of them, even those with industrial and urban occupations,
had
been compelled originally to live in the country or in small cities and to
work
in some rural occupations to make a living. They later tried to get back
to
their old occupations largely located in the cities.!/ At any rate, the stimuli
creating the trend of migration from the country to the city, namely, changes
in
the labor market and diminishing advantages of living in the country, were
stronger than the deterrents represented by the system of residence permits
still
in effect, and the bad housing conditions in the cities.
The shortage of building material, labor and capital, greatly limited
building activity in the cities. Even taking into account the fact that a
large
Ij This movement was to be expected. See The Population of the U.S. Zone
of
Germany", November 1947, Part 2, p.9. "The important question is
whether the
present distribution of population (i.e. distribution by size of communities
as
reflected in the figures at the date of the census - October 1946) is temporary
or permanent. When restrictions on movement are lifted, or at least modified,
a great number of the immigrant population now compelled to live in the country
msy migrate to the cities.'
27
May 1948
Number of Persons Gainfully     Increase or Decrease
Occupations                Employed
31 Dec. 1946   6l Dec. 1947     Number       Percent
All Occupations        4,363,626      4,726,638     + 363,012     + 8.32
Agriculture, Forestry,
Hunting and Fishing     573,043         531,942       - 41,101     -7.17
All other Occupations 3,790,583       4,194,696      +404,113     +10.66
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