Bunk, Brian D., 1968-; Pack, Sasha D.; Scott, Carl-Gustaf (ed.) / Nation and conflict in modern Spain: essays in honor of Stanley G. Payne
Bunk, Brian D., 1968-
"A shape note of pugnacity" : conservative youth groups in Spain, 1914-1939, pp. 15-29 ff.
NATION AND CONFLICT IN MODERN SPAIN 33. Ibid., 302,303,308. 34. Montero, "Juventud," 114. 35. Watanabe, 160, 312. 36. The "parent" organization was the dictator's Union Patri6tica. On the legacy of UP see Shlomo Ben- Ami, "The Forerunners of Spanish Fascism: Uni6n Patri6tica and Uni6n Monirquica," in Spain in Conflict, 1931-1939. Democracy and its Enemies, ed. Martin Blinhorn (London: Sage Publications, 1986). See also, Eduardo Gonzalez Calleja, La Espaiia de Primo de Rivera. La modernizaciin auto- ritaria 1932-1930 (Madrid: Alianza editorial, 2005) and Shlomo Ben-Ami, Fascism from Above: The Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera in Spain, 1923-1930 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983). 37. Alejandro Quiroga Fernandez de Soto, "Perros de paja: las Juventudes de la Union Patriotica," Ayer 59, no. 3 (2005): 80. 38. Protests on campus were largely the result of actions by the liberal student organization Federacion Universitaria Escolar (FUE), founded in 1926. In addition, demographic shifts and the Primo de Rivera regime's emphasis on developing the educational system had led to an explosive rise in the number of students attending university. In 1922 the total number of students was 18,696; by 1929 the figure had grown to almost 60,000. Gonzailez Calleja, La Espafia de Primo de Rivera, 86, 90. 39. Quiroga Fernindez de Soto, 89. 40. An Italian publication concluded that the dictatorship's inability to mobilize the support of young people had contributed to its downfall. Payne, Fascism in Spain, 36-37. 41. Quiroga Ferna'ndez de Soto, 71-72, 86, 91-92. 42. The JUMN was formed in 1930, and its top men included many former leaders of JUP. Quiroga Fernaindez de Soto, 93-94. On the JUMN's parent, the Union Monarquica see, Ben-Ami, "The Forerunners of Spanish Fascism," 114-26. For Juventudes Mondrquicas Independientes see Eugenio Vegas Latapie, Memorias politicas. El suicido de la Monarquia y la Segunda Republica (Barcelona: Editorial Planeta, 1983), 74-85. 43. Payne, Fascism in Spain, 61, 63. 44. Quoted in ibid., 59. 45. Quoted in ibid., 104. 46. Ramiro Ledesma Ramos, Fascismo en Espafia? Discurso a las Juventudes de Espafia (Espulgues de Llobregat: Ediciones Ariel, 1968), 209-10, 255-56. 47. Gil Pecharroman, 153. 48. Payne, Fascism in Spain, 89, 92. 49. By 1936 over half of FE's membership was under 21 years of age and this caused some tensions, especially after the fusion with the JONS, between the youths and the older, original members of the party. Ibid., 100, 141, 165. 50. "Discurso de la fundaci6n de la Falange Espanola" (speech, Teatro de la Comedia, Madrid, October 29, 1933). Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera, Escritos y Discurso. Obras completas (1922-1936), ed. Agustin del Rio Cisneros (Madrid: Instituto de Estudios Politicos, 1976), 1:191, 194. 51. Eduardo Gonzalez Calleja, "The Symbolism of Violence during the Second Republic," in The Splintering of Spain. Cultural History and the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939, ed. Chris Ealham and Michael Richards, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 38-42. 52. Payne, Fascism in Spain, 81, 303. 53. A contemporary account of the formation of the JAP can be found in Jose Monge y Bernal, Accion Popular. Estudios de biologia politica (Madrid: Saiez Hermanos, 1936). See, also Jose Maria Gil Robles, Nofue posible la paz (Barcelona: Ariel, 1968), chapter 10. 54. Ba"ez y Perez de Tudela, 125, 126. The JAP also owed something to Primo de Rivera's JUP as both organizations claimed the Virgin of Pilar as patrons. Quiroga Fernfindez de Soto, 88. 55. Simon Lowe, "The Juventud de Accion Popular and the 'Failure' of 'Fascism' in Spain, 1932-1936" (master's thesis, University of Sheffield, 2000), 12. For a discussion of the problems with sources see, 10-11. 28
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