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Bunk, Brian D., 1968-; Pack, Sasha D.; Scott, Carl-Gustaf (ed.) / Nation and conflict in modern Spain: essays in honor of Stanley G. Payne
(2008)

Winston, Colin M., 1955-
Carlist worker groups in Catalonia, 1900-1923,   pp. [1]-14


Page 14

NATION AND CONFLICT IN MODERN SPAIN 
19. La Veu de Calalunya, December 11, 1912. 
20. R. Jac, Vade-Mecum delJaimista, May 1912. 
21. For radical Carlist support of strikes by carpenters, varnishers, barbers,
waiters, and pastry cooks see 
La Trinchera, February 23 and July 13, 1913; and February 22, 1914; on the
tram workers' right to 
organize and strike see Reacci6, February 14, 1914. 
22. M. Sino, Vade-Macum delJaimista, March 1912. 
23. The Libres' history is analyzed in Winston, chapters 4-7. The most important
contemporary work 
is the official history by Feliciano Baratech Alfaro, Los Sindicatos Libres
de espaha, su origen, su actu- 
aciin, su ideario (Barcelona: Talleres Grhficos Cortel, 1927). 
24. Conclusions del Congres dejoves Traditionalistes Calalans. Celebrat els
dies 18 de novembre de 1917 i 
17 i 18 dl marc i 2juny de 1918 (Barcelona: Hereus Viuda Pla, 1918), 36-39.
25. Junyent, interview with the author and Carlos Feli i de Travy (provincial
Carlist chief of Barcelona, 
1958-1960), interview with the author. See also Inocencio Feced, La Batalla,
May 14, 1931. Little 
biographical material is available for Sales, the first president of the
Sindicato Libre Regional. What 
is known suggests that his life was typical of a whole generation of Carlist
workers, especially those 
recently arrived in Barcelona. Born in the village of La Fulleda in Lleida
around 1900, he was or- 
phaned at age seventeen and forced to migrate to Barcelona. He helped support
his family through a 
job as a shop assistant and joined the Sindicato Unico Mercantil of the CNT
in 1918. Coming from a 
rural Catalan background, Sales joined the Barcelona Requet4, and by 1919
was active at the Ateneo 
Obrero Legitimista and other Carlist worker clubs. Only nineteen years old
when elected president of 
the union, he was younger than most of his fellow Librefios, yet his primacy
was seldom challenged 
throughout the union's seventeen-year history. See Winston, 113-14. 
26. Winston, 120. Even Angel Pestafta, a CNT leader who at times lumped together
Catholic and Libre 
unionists, the authorities, and the employers in the same bag of anti-CNT
forces, admitted that 
"the elements who appeared as directors of the Sindicato Libre and who
were responsible for so 
much crime, were not the same as those who led the Catholic unions."
Angel Pestaha, Terrorismo en 
Barcelona: Memorias ineditas (Barcelona: Planeta, 1979), 163. 
27. On Lagunas see Winston, 160-63. His pre-Libre trajectory as a leftist
is chronicled by Gerald 
Meaker, The Revolutionary Left in Spain, 1917-1923 (Stanford: Stanford University
Press, 1974), 
124. 
28. The actual proportion of Carlists in leadership positions of individual
Libre unions was probably 
somewhat higher than this figure suggests. Many modest Carlist workers would
not have been 
named in the party journals from which lists of Carlist militants were taken
or have served on any of 
the party center juntas, and thus remained anonymous. 
29. Baratech Alfaro, 67. 
30. Union Obrera, August 13, 1921. 
31. Union Obrera, July 30 and November 5, 1921. 
32. Cited in El Eco del Pueblo, March 31, 1923. Only very slightly less inflammatory
exhortations were 
regularly published in the Libre weekly, Union Obrera. 
33. El Correo Catalan, August 5, 1923. 
34. On the Libra takeover of the CADCI see Winston, 237-41. The deepest and
most dispassionate 
contemporary account is by Ram6n Rucabado, "Pagines d'Historia,"
Catalunya Social, September 
13 and 20, 1930. 
35. Union Obrera, December 7, 1928. 
36. For example, Antonio Oliveras and Domingo Farrell, respectively vice
president and secretary gen- 
eral of the union from 1920-23, left the Libres in 1925. 
37. See the letter from Sales to General Milans del Bosch, September 11,
1928, published on May 25, 
1931, in La Batalla. 
38. See La Vanguardia, March 23, 1923, and May 22, 1927. 
39. La Trinchera, April 10, 1930. 
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