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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311
(1969)

XVII: The Kingdom of Cyprus, 1191-1291,   pp. 599-629 PDF (17.1 MB)


Page 626

 626 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES II 
not be converted en masse and could not be left wholly without pastors.67
 The Greek archbishop Neophytus (not to be confused with the hermit of the
Enkleistra) refused to submit and was banished.68 The Cypriotes then sent
a deputation to Germanus, the Greek patriarch of Nicaea, to ask for guidance.
In a letter of 1222—1223 Germanus directed the Greek bishops to refuse
to do homage to the Latins, but to yield in such matters as obtaining leave
from the Latin ordinary to take possession of their offices and admitting
appeals to the ordinaries from decisions of Greek bishops. Some of the Greek
clergy seem to have submitted, for in 1229 Germanus wrote a second letter,
addressed this time to Syrians as well as Greeks, denouncing the unbridled
ambition of the Roman church, which was trying to set up the pope in place
of Christ, and forbidding the clergy and laity to have any dealings with
those who had given in to the demands of the Latins. 
 In the ensuing years the martyrdom of thirteen Greeks further inflamed the
struggle. Two monks from Mt. Athos, wishing to share the sufferings of their
cobelievers, had settled in the monastery of Kantara with a small group of
disciples. A Dominican friar named Andrew entered into a disputation with
them on the longvexed question of the "azymes" (whether it was proper to
use un leavened bread for the sacramental wafer as was done in the Roman
church). Summoned before archbishop Eustorgue for opposing the Roman practice,
they were thrown into prison, where they suffered manifold hardships and
one died. Gregory IX sent orders to treat them as heretics if they persisted
in their "error". When Eustorgue had to retire for a time to Acre because
of a quarrel with Balian of Ibelin, whom he had excommunicated for marrying
within the prohibited degrees of consanguinity, he left friar Andrew to deal
with them. When they were brought before the high court, king Henry allowed
Andrew to impose sentence. They were to be dragged through the market-place
or river-bed at the tails of horses 
 67 See Hill, History of Cyprus, III, 1047 and 1044—1045, referring
to Honorius' letters of December 30, xzzx (Potthast, no. 6747), and of January
3, 1222 (Potthast, no. 6755). Pressutti, no. 3663, summarizing the letter
of December 30 to queen Alice, notes that Potthast, in nos. 6747 and 6748,
makes two letters to the queen out of "one and the same letter", a point
not noticed by LaMonte ("Register of the Cartulary of Santa Sophia," Byzantion,
V, p. 451, note 2). 
 68 Laurent, in his review of Hill in Revue des etudes byzantines, VI (1948),
271, and in his article, "La Succession épiscopale," ibid., VII (1949),
37, does not credit the story given in Hackett, Orthodox Church in Cyprus,
pp. 84 and 309, and in Hill, History of Cyprus, III, 1044, based on the evidence
of the 17th-century Orthodox patriarch of Jerusalem, Dositheus, that an earlier
archbishop, Esaias, submitted in 1220, then repented and sought pardon at
Nicaea for his apostasy. 


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