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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311
(1969)

XVII: The Kingdom of Cyprus, 1191-1291,   pp. 599-629 PDF (17.1 MB)


Page 613

Ch.XVII THE KINGDOM OF CYPRUS, 1191—1291 613 
to go to the relief of Beirut, crossed to the mainland in the spring of 1232,
whereupon Barlais and his confederates promptly deserted to the imperialists.
John reinforced his castle and then went to Acre, where, in April 1232, he
received the oath of the recently established commune and seized the imperial
fleet in the harbor. Since Ibelin had stripped Cyprus of most of its defenders,
Filangieri sent over a force under Barlais, which overran the island and
took all the castles except Dieudamour and Buffavento. In retaliation, Ibelin
planned an attack on the imperialist base at Tyre, but at Casal Imbert, north
of Acre, the Cypriotes, while Ibelin was absent in Acre, were surprised on
the night of May 3—4, and were badly routed. Filangieri then dispatched
the main body of his troops to finish the reduction of Cyprus. Ibelin at
once collected his scattered forces and, toward the end of May, crossed over
in Genoese ships and captured Famagusta by surprise. Most of the Cypriote
popula tion welcomed the Ibelins as deliverers, On June 15, at Agridi, the
Cypriotes completely defeated the imperialists, who retreated to the castle
of Kyrenia. Its capitulation in the spring of 1233 brought to a close the
imperialist threat to the island. 
 The struggle on the mainland continued for another ten years, though after
the death of John of Ibelin in 1236 an uneasy truce was maintained. Finally,
in 1243, Philip of Novara suggested that, since Conrad would come of age
on April 25, 1243, Frederick's regency would thereby end and with it Filangieri's
appointment as bailie; so the barons would be acting legally if they should
drive Filangieri out. In June 1243 a full meeting of the vassals of Jeru
salem and Cyprus at Acre accepted the claim of Alice of Cham pagne, as nearest
heir of Conrad present in the country, to the regency of Jerusalem.36 
 With the capitulation of Tyre the baronial party in the east triumphed and
the imperial rule almost ceased. In 1247 Innocent IV absolved Henry of Cyprus
from any oath he might have taken to the emperor, and took him and his kingdom
under the protection of the holy see. Alice and then Henry I were regents
for Conrad, still legally king; it was not until after the death of Conradin
in 1268 that Hugh III of Cyprus, proclaimed by the high court in 
1269, could style himself "twelfth Latin king of Jerusalem and king of Cyprus."
 The struggle with Frederick had exacerbated the factions in the kingdom
of Jerusalem and weakened its fabric. We are reminded, 
36 See above, chapter XV, pp. 553—554, and chapter XVI, p.  


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