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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311

XVII: The Kingdom of Cyprus, 1191-1291,   pp. 599-629 PDF (17.1 MB)

Page 610

a crusading fleet in the harbor of Limassol, burnt a large number of vessels,
and took prisoner or killed a reported thirteen thousand Christians.30 In
July 1221 John returned to Egypt by way of Cyprus, and probably brought some
Cypriotes with him to take part in the fatal advance towards Cairo. Upon
the evacuation of Damietta in September 1 22 1, even "the earth, by a divine
miracle, was saddened", for in the following year an earthquake shook Cyprus,
and a tidal wave submerged Limassol and Paphos.31 
 Among the participants in the Damietta campaign was the young Philip of
Novara, in the service of the Cypriote knight Peter Chappe. Born apparently
in Novara around 1 195, Philip went to the east and eventually settled in
Cyprus. While in Egypt, he received instruction from Ralph of Tiberias, the
great jurisconsult of Jerusalem. In his later years, Philip wrote not only
one of the legal treatises making up the Assises de Jerusalem, but also a
highly colored narrative of the war between Frederick II and the Ibelins.
 When, in June 1228, Frederick II finally set out on his longdelayed crusade,
he set in motion the train of events leading to the Lombard war — a
war in which the "Ibelins, like the Guelphs in Germany, maintained the constitutional
rights of the feudal baronage against the imperialists, and, more successful
than their western counterparts, established in Jerusalem and Cyprus that
rule of law so well illustrated by the Assises which were written by the
most famous member of their family."32 
 As early as 1225 the bailie of Cyprus, Philip of Ibelin, fearing that Frederick
would claim the wardship of king Henry, still a minor, had him crowned. Frederick
considered Cyprus an imperial fief, since king Aimery in 1197 had recognized
the suzerainty of his father, the emperor Henry VI. After Henry's coronation,
Frederick had written protesting that he alone had the right to bestow the
crown and demanding the regency; but he could take no action until he reached
Limassol in July 1228. Encouraged by Amalric Barlais, a Cypriote baron who
had gone to meet him with a group of other anti-Ibelin barons, Frederick
determined to exercise his rights over the island. 
 30 The figure is probably exaggerated by the chroniclers; it may well include
not only the casualties at Limassol, but others captured on the sea lanes
between Acre, Cyprus, and Egypt. For Pelagius and the Fifth Crusade at Damietta,
see above, chapter XI, pp. 397—428. 
 31 R. Röhricht, Testimonia minora de quinto bello sacro (Geneva, 1
882), p. 240; see Hill, History of Cyprus, II, 87 and note 5 for other accounts.
 32 LaMonte, Feudal Monarchy, p. 60. These "Lombards" or "Longobards" are
not to be confused with the natives of northern Italy; they were the inhabitants
of the old Byzantine theme of Longobardia in southern Italy. Cf. LaMonte's
introduction to Philip of Novara, The Wars, pp. viii—ix. 

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