Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311
XVII: The Kingdom of Cyprus, 1191-1291, pp. 599-629 PDF (17.1 MB)
610 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES II a crusading fleet in the harbor of Limassol, burnt a large number of vessels, and took prisoner or killed a reported thirteen thousand Christians.30 In July 1221 John returned to Egypt by way of Cyprus, and probably brought some Cypriotes with him to take part in the fatal advance towards Cairo. Upon the evacuation of Damietta in September 1 22 1, even "the earth, by a divine miracle, was saddened", for in the following year an earthquake shook Cyprus, and a tidal wave submerged Limassol and Paphos.31 Among the participants in the Damietta campaign was the young Philip of Novara, in the service of the Cypriote knight Peter Chappe. Born apparently in Novara around 1 195, Philip went to the east and eventually settled in Cyprus. While in Egypt, he received instruction from Ralph of Tiberias, the great jurisconsult of Jerusalem. In his later years, Philip wrote not only one of the legal treatises making up the Assises de Jerusalem, but also a highly colored narrative of the war between Frederick II and the Ibelins. When, in June 1228, Frederick II finally set out on his longdelayed crusade, he set in motion the train of events leading to the Lombard war — a war in which the "Ibelins, like the Guelphs in Germany, maintained the constitutional rights of the feudal baronage against the imperialists, and, more successful than their western counterparts, established in Jerusalem and Cyprus that rule of law so well illustrated by the Assises which were written by the most famous member of their family."32 As early as 1225 the bailie of Cyprus, Philip of Ibelin, fearing that Frederick would claim the wardship of king Henry, still a minor, had him crowned. Frederick considered Cyprus an imperial fief, since king Aimery in 1197 had recognized the suzerainty of his father, the emperor Henry VI. After Henry's coronation, Frederick had written protesting that he alone had the right to bestow the crown and demanding the regency; but he could take no action until he reached Limassol in July 1228. Encouraged by Amalric Barlais, a Cypriote baron who had gone to meet him with a group of other anti-Ibelin barons, Frederick determined to exercise his rights over the island. 30 The figure is probably exaggerated by the chroniclers; it may well include not only the casualties at Limassol, but others captured on the sea lanes between Acre, Cyprus, and Egypt. For Pelagius and the Fifth Crusade at Damietta, see above, chapter XI, pp. 397—428. 31 R. Röhricht, Testimonia minora de quinto bello sacro (Geneva, 1 882), p. 240; see Hill, History of Cyprus, II, 87 and note 5 for other accounts. 32 LaMonte, Feudal Monarchy, p. 60. These "Lombards" or "Longobards" are not to be confused with the natives of northern Italy; they were the inhabitants of the old Byzantine theme of Longobardia in southern Italy. Cf. LaMonte's introduction to Philip of Novara, The Wars, pp. viii—ix.
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