Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311
XII: The Crusade of Frederick II, pp. 429-462 PDF (20.5 MB)
Ch. XII THE CRUSADE OF FREDERICK II 455 in Syria, he risked losing his Sicilian kingdom, but if he abandoned the Holy Land, he would be dishonored and his position weakened in the eyes of the Christian world. Fortunately for him, al-Kämil himself was still busy besieging Damascus. When negotiations were resumed, they led, therefore, to a peace described by an Arabic source as "one of the most disastrous events of Islam". 95 Al-Maqrizi says that al-Kämil was universally blamed for the treaty, "and his conduct was severely judged in all coun tries".96 Unfortunately, no complete copy of the treaty survives either in Arabic or in Latin. It is possible to reconstruct it only from extracts included in letters to the pope from the patriarch Gerald and the Teutonic master, Hermann of Salza, and in a letter of Frederick to the king of England, as well as from occasional references, with differing emphases, in both Arabic and Christian sources.97 Al-Kãmil surrendered Jerusalem, giving Frederick the right to make such disposition of it as he desired — obviously including the right to fortify it. In writing to the king of England, Frederick said, "we are allowed to rebuild the city of Jerusalem in as good a state as it has ever been . ." 98 Frederick also received Bethlehem and Nazareth, with the villages along the routes to Jerusalem, part of Sidon district, and Toron, dominating the coast. All these places, with the exception of Toron, he could refortify, while al-Kãmil, as Frederick puts it, was not allowed "till the end of the truce, which is agreed on for ten years, to repair or rebuild any fortress or castles". 99 The settlement with respect to the city of Jerusalem, although drawn up in a spirit of tolerance almost inconceivable of the thirteenth century, evidently proved to be a chief difficulty in the negotiations and the item least acceptable to Christians and Moslems alike. Al-Iiaram ash-Sharif, the sacred enclosure, including both the Aqsa mosque and the Qubbat as-Sakhrah (the Temple of Solomon, or Dome of the Rock) remained in the possession of the Moslems, with full freedom to worship there, provided they were Badr-ad-Din al-'Aini, ' Iqd al-jaman (RHC, Or., II, part I), p. 187. 96 "Histoire d'Egypte," ROL, IX, 526. For the fragment see Huillard-Breholles, III, 86 ff.; for the letters of Gerald and Hermann, ibid., pp. 90 ff. and 102 ff. Frederick's letter is in Roger of Wendover, Flores historiarum, II, 365 ff. See also the useful analysis of the treaty in J. LaMonte's notes to Philip of Novara, The Wars of Frederick II against the Ibelins, pp. 36 ff., n. 4; and below, chapter XX, p. 702. 98 Roger of Wendover, Flares historiarum, II, 367. The question of the refortification of Jerusalem is obscure, some of the Arabic sources stating positively that it was not permitted. See Grousset, Croisades, III, 318 ff.; and below, chapter XX, p. 702. Roger of Wendover, Flares historiarum, II, 367.
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