Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311
XII: The Crusade of Frederick II, pp. 429-462 PDF (20.5 MB)
450 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES must have perceived at once that the removal of al-Mu'azzam would serve to improve the outlook for al-Kãmil, while weakening his own bargaining power. It was doubtless this realization that led him to send the marshal Richard Filangieri with 500 knights to Syria in the following April and to hasten his own preparations.73 In November 1 227, an emissary from Frederick, acting "with the consent of the Roman people and the senate," 74 publicly read in Rome the imperial manifesto explaining and justifying the delay. Perhaps this stimulated the pope to send two cardinals to Frederick in late December, but Frederick refuscd to receive them. Ap parently he had concluded that he could obtain reconciliation with Gregory only on terms that were too humiliating to be acceptable. His diet at Capua in December decreed that each Sicilian fief should provide eight ounces of gold for the crusade, and each group of.eight fiefs one armed knight to be ready to sail for Syria in May. In Swabia the emperor's circular letter announcing the departure in May had recruited a good many ministeriales for the crusade. 75 But Frederick could not hold the diet at Ravenna, announced in the circular letter, because the Milanese and Veronese blocked the Alpine passes to the Germans, and Gregory IX threatened to place under interdict all villages or towns in which the emperor might stay.76 We are told, however, that Frederick cele brated Easter 1228 "with all joy and exultation." 77 In Sicily his measures of retaliation against the papacy, threaten ing the confiscation of the property of those who obeyed the papal decrees, met with general acceptance.78 In Rome itself Frederick's powerful supporters, notably the Frangipani, and his many friends among the populace, whom he had fed during the famine of 1227, rioted against Gregory IX and hounded him out of the city, first to Viterbo and then to Rieti.79 Frederick knew perfectly well that in his absence all his German and Sicilian enemies would join with the pope in an effort to destroy him. Indeed, Gregory had made his plans for the invasion of Sicily, and had been trying to find a Weif protégé in Germany.80 At Barletta in the late spring of 1228, Richard of San Germano (MGH, SS., XIX), p. 349. 74 Ibid., p. 348. 75 Huillard-Bréholles, III, 57—58. For his circular letter see ibid., pp. 36 ff. 76 John Codagnellus, Annales placentini (Scriptores rerum Germanicarum ad usum scholarum, Hanover, 1901), p. 86. Richard of San Germano (MGH, SS., XIX), p. 349. 78 Huillard-Bréholles, III, 50 ff.; Röhricht, Beitrage, I, 25. 79 Richard of San Germano (MGH, SS., XIX), p. 349; Burchard, Urspergensium chronicon (MGH, SS., XXIII), p. 383. 80 Winkelmann, Kaiser Friedrich, II, 16 ff.; Kantorowicz, Friedrich II., pp. 163 ff.
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