Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311
XII: The Crusade of Frederick II, pp. 429-462 PDF (20.5 MB)
Ch. XII THE CRUSADE OF FREDERICK II 449 surah in the summer of 1 22 1, the three Aiyübid brothers, sons of the late sultan al-'Adil, who had wiped out the threat from the forces of the Fifth Crusade, soon fell out among themselves, al-Kãmil, sultan of Egypt, feuding with al-Mu'azzam, governor of Damascus, while the youngest brother, al-Ashraf governor of Akhlat, cleverly shifted his allegiance back and forth. By 1225 al-Kãmil was convinced that al-Mu'azzam was plotting to seize the sultanate, while al-Mu'azzam was seeking an alliance with Jalal-ad-Din, the ruthless shah of Khorezm, and so threatening, as al-Kãmil saw, the destruction of the entire Aiyubid house. Under these circumstances, almost in desperation, al-Kamil had in 1226 sent the emir Fakhr-ad-Din to the emperor to ask him to come to Acre; he promised to give to him many cities of Palestine which belonged to the Moslems if he would attack al-Mu'azzam.68 Another Arab historian adds that al-Kamil specifically promised Frederick Jerusalem.69 Frederick had sent to al-Kãmil archbishop Berard of Palermo and count Thomas of Acerra, the emperor's bailie in Syria, who had given the sultan rich gifts from Frederick, including a favorite horse with a saddle of gold, inlaid with precious stones. After a ceremonious reception, al-Kãmil had entrusted to them presents of great value from India, Yemen, Iraq, Egypt, and elsewhere in token of his esteem for the emperor.70 Arabic sources reveal also that archbishop Berard had continued his journey to Damascus in October 1227. Here he had attempted negotiations with al-Mu'azzam, who had dismissed him with the curt message: "Say to your master that I am not as certain others, and that I have nothing for him but my sword." Al—Mu'azzam had then endeavored, unsuccessfully, to make peace with his younger brother, al-Ashraf; while al-Kamil, ap prehensive over Berard's visit to Damascus, had hastily dispatched Fakhr-ad-Din on a second mission to Frederick in the autumn of 1227. 71 It may well have been at this time that Frederick knighted Fakhr-ad-Din. For, in describing the emir some years later, Joinville says of him: "his banner was bendyand on one of the bends were the arms of the emperor, who had knighted him."72 But hardly had Fakhr-ad-Din fulfilled his mission when Frederick received word from Thomas of Acerra of the sudden death of al-Mu'azzam. He 68 Al-Maqrizi, "Histoire d'Egypte," ROL, IX, 509 ff. 69 Badr-ad-Din al-'Aini, ' Iqd al-jamãn (RHC, Or., II, part I), pp. 185-186. This entire subject is treated by E. Blochet, "Relations diplomatiques des Hohenstaufen avec les sultans d'Egypte," Rev. historique, LXXX (1902), 53 ff. 70 Al-Maqrizi, "Histoire d'Egypte," ROL, IX, 511. 71 Badr-ad-DIn al-'Aini, ' Iqd al-jaman (RHC, Or., II, part I), pp. 186—187. 72 John of Joinville, Histoire de St. Louis (ed. Natalis Wailly, Paris, 1874), pp. 109—110.
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