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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311

XII: The Crusade of Frederick II,   pp. 429-462 PDF (20.5 MB)

Page 443

of John violated the spirit, if not the letter, of the San Germano agreement,
but the legality of his claim appears to have been sup ported by precedents
already established in the cases of Guy of Lusignan, Conrad of Montferrat,
and Henry of Champagne.45 
 Such precedents, however, did not serve to reconcile king John, who first
remonstrated with Frederick, and then denounced him in unbridled language,
calculated to destroy for all time the pos sibility of a reconciliation.
John then fled to Rome to seek the aid of the pope.46 Honorius sympathized
with John, and wrote to Frederick, characterizing his conduct as scandalous
— "no less prejudicial to your own reputation than to the interests
of the Holy Land."47 The pope ignored Frederick's assumption of the new title,
and that this was an intentional rebuke may be inferred also from the fact
that Gregory IX, Honorius's successor, made reference to the title only in
August i 23 1, after Frederick had been reconciled to the church.48 Meanwhile
Frederick sought and obtained the oath of fealty from the Syrian nobles who
had ac companied the queen to Brindisi. Although they might well have insisted
that, upon a strict interpretation of the Assises, the king should be a resident
of the kingdom, the barons, with the probable exception of the Ibelins, appear
at first to have accepted Frederick as king of Jerusalem without protest.49
 Both the pope and the Syrian magnates must have recognized that, despite
the harsh terms of San Germano, the emperor had made important gains through
his marriage. He was now in a position to accomplish the expedition to the
Holy Land, not merely as leader of a crusade in the traditional sense, but
as a royal con queror seeking to regain possession of his own. Frederick's
first royal decree confirmed the possessions of the Teutonic Knights in Syria,
on behalf of Hermann of Salza, the master, and the brothers of that order.
At the same time he bestowed new privileges upon them.50 The Teutonic Knights
now won a place in the east com parable to that which the Templars and Hospitallers
had so long 
 Von Raumer, Gcschichte der Hohenstaufen, III, 169. 
 46 Ibid., and Huillard-Bréholles, II, part 2, 923 and n. 2. See also
Salimbene, Cron. (MGH SS., XXXII), p. 41. 
  Huillard-Bréholles, II, part I, 597-598. 
 48 Ibid., III, 298: "Friderico illustri Romanorum imperatori, semper augusto,
Hierusalem et Sicilie regi      
  Röhricht, Beitrage, I, 15, appears to have little support for his
statement that at this time, "Allein der Adel und Klerus des Konigreichs
Jerusalem war mit Friedrich nicht zufrieden       It was only later, when
there was reason to fear his interference in Cyprus, that there was a definite
manifestation of dissatisfaction. Concerning the Ibelins, see G. F. Hill,
History of Cyprus, II, 90. 
 50 Huillard-Bréholles, II, part I, 531 ff. 

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