Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311
XII: The Crusade of Frederick II, pp. 429-462 PDF (20.5 MB)
Ch. XII THE CRUSADE OF FREDERICK II 443 of John violated the spirit, if not the letter, of the San Germano agreement, but the legality of his claim appears to have been sup ported by precedents already established in the cases of Guy of Lusignan, Conrad of Montferrat, and Henry of Champagne.45 Such precedents, however, did not serve to reconcile king John, who first remonstrated with Frederick, and then denounced him in unbridled language, calculated to destroy for all time the pos sibility of a reconciliation. John then fled to Rome to seek the aid of the pope.46 Honorius sympathized with John, and wrote to Frederick, characterizing his conduct as scandalous — "no less prejudicial to your own reputation than to the interests of the Holy Land."47 The pope ignored Frederick's assumption of the new title, and that this was an intentional rebuke may be inferred also from the fact that Gregory IX, Honorius's successor, made reference to the title only in August i 23 1, after Frederick had been reconciled to the church.48 Meanwhile Frederick sought and obtained the oath of fealty from the Syrian nobles who had ac companied the queen to Brindisi. Although they might well have insisted that, upon a strict interpretation of the Assises, the king should be a resident of the kingdom, the barons, with the probable exception of the Ibelins, appear at first to have accepted Frederick as king of Jerusalem without protest.49 Both the pope and the Syrian magnates must have recognized that, despite the harsh terms of San Germano, the emperor had made important gains through his marriage. He was now in a position to accomplish the expedition to the Holy Land, not merely as leader of a crusade in the traditional sense, but as a royal con queror seeking to regain possession of his own. Frederick's first royal decree confirmed the possessions of the Teutonic Knights in Syria, on behalf of Hermann of Salza, the master, and the brothers of that order. At the same time he bestowed new privileges upon them.50 The Teutonic Knights now won a place in the east com parable to that which the Templars and Hospitallers had so long Von Raumer, Gcschichte der Hohenstaufen, III, 169. 46 Ibid., and Huillard-Bréholles, II, part 2, 923 and n. 2. See also Salimbene, Cron. (MGH SS., XXXII), p. 41. Huillard-Bréholles, II, part I, 597-598. 48 Ibid., III, 298: "Friderico illustri Romanorum imperatori, semper augusto, Hierusalem et Sicilie regi Röhricht, Beitrage, I, 15, appears to have little support for his statement that at this time, "Allein der Adel und Klerus des Konigreichs Jerusalem war mit Friedrich nicht zufrieden It was only later, when there was reason to fear his interference in Cyprus, that there was a definite manifestation of dissatisfaction. Concerning the Ibelins, see G. F. Hill, History of Cyprus, II, 90. 50 Huillard-Bréholles, II, part I, 531 ff.
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