Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311
XI: The Fifth Crusade, pp. 376-428 PDF (13.1 MB)
382 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES II Customs of the Moslems. Perhaps he exaggerated the depravity of the Syrian Christians, especially of the "poulains", the descendants of the first Latin settlers, whose effeminacy and immorality shocked him. But at best he found them a lascivious and treacherous people, always eager to teach the westerners their vicious habits. He charged that they did not scruple at serving as spies for the "infidel" against their own people.'5 In Acre, the key city of the Latin kingdom, where criminals thronged, where women of the street accepted the favors of the clergy, and where the scum of the Mediterranean came to prey upon the newly arrived crusaders, the eloquent James of Vitry restored something of the spiritual ardor of the early crusading era. In the west troubadours no less than preachers aided the pope in awakening interest in the crusade. Pons of Capdolh (Chapdeuil) expresses the wish that the kings of France and England would make peace, and that the king of Apulia (Frederick II) and the emperor (Otto IV) would become friends until the Holy Sepulcher should be recovered by the Christians. With equal fervor a poem of Aimery of Péguilhan, inspired by the call of Innocent III, urges the young William IV of Montferrat to emulate the deeds of his forebears who had won fame and honor in Syria.16 An anonymous troubadour appeals to Philip II, Otto IV, and John of England to make peace and go forward together to the conquest of Syria.'7 Meanwhile the Lateran Council afforded Innocent III an op.. portunity for arranging the final details.18 Brindisi and Messina were designated as the places of assembly for departure on June i, 1 2 I 7, at which time Innocent himself intended to visit Sicily to bestow his blessings upon the departing pilgrims. The clergy were to urge and, if necessary, compel all crusaders to fulfill their vows, and see to it that the nobles provided and equipped their assigned quotas of armed men. After the expedition was under way the clergy should aid in maintaining discipline through guidance and 15 James of Vitry, Historia Iherosolimitana (ed. Bongars), I, par. 74-79, pp. 1089 ff. 16 F. Diez, Die Poesie der Troubadours (Paris, 1845), pp. 212-213. For the fixing of the dates of these poems see also K. Lewent, Das altprovenzalische Kreuzlied (Erlangen, 1905), pp. 28 ff. Cf. A. Pillet and H. Carstens, Bibliographic des Troubadours (Halle, 1933). 17 R. Zenker, "Peire von Auvergne," Romanische Forschungen: Organ für Romanische Sprachen und Mittellatein, XII (Erlangen, 1900), 798 ff.: "Al rei Felip et a'n Oto et al rei Joan eisamen laus que fasson acordamen entr' els 18 J. D. Mansi (ed.), Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, XXII (Venice, 1778; reprinted Paris, 1903), 1058-1067, analyzed in some detail by Röhricht, Fiinft. Kreuz., pp. 6 ff. The constitution is also in PL, CCXVII, cols. 269 ff. See also W. E. Lunt, Papal Revenues in the Middle Ages, II (New York, 1934), 86 ff.
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