Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311
XI: The Fifth Crusade, pp. 376-428 PDF (13.1 MB)
378 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES II his efforts on the organization of a new crusade in the west. Yet conditions in western Europe were hardly favorable for the enter prise: Germany was torn by the conflict between Philip of Swabia and Otto of Brunswick, and after the assassination of Philip in 1 208, it soon became apparent that Otto's imperial ambitions were ir reconcilable with the papal plans. In France the nobility was engaged in the war against the Albigensians, enjoying privileges and immunities similar to those of crusaders in Syria. The bitter territorial conflict between Philip Augustus and John Lackland preoccupied both monarchs, while the attention of Spain was absorbed by the crusade against the Muwahhids (Almohads). The mystical appeal, which had evoked a universal response in earlier crusades, now led only to such flascos as the Children's Crusade. It was not until 1213 that Innocent III at last sent forth his letters summoning the leaders of Christendom to a great council to be held in November 1 215, at the same time announcing that the causes nearest his heart were the reformation of the universal church and the conquest of the Holy Land.' The tone of Innocent's letters leaves no doubt that he was determined to take every precaution to insure that the plans did not miscarry through falling into the hands of others than the chosen agents of the church. What is usually designated as the Fifth Crusade was to be above all else a papal crusade. Innocent is H. Hoogeweg, "Der Kreuzzug von Damietta," Mittheilungen des Osterreichischen Instituts für Geschichtsforschung VIII, IX; of lesser importance but useful for details of the expedition and the siege of Damietta is: M. Reinaud, "Histoire de la sixieme croisade et de la prise de Damiette d'après les écrivains arabes," Journal asiatique, VIII (r8z6), i8 if. The financing of the crusade and, particularly, the role of the Templars is treated by L. Delisle, "Mémoire sur les operations financières des templiers," Mémoires de l' Institut national de France; Academie des inscrzptions et belles lettres, XXXIII, part 2 (Paris, 1889), 1—250. The most thoroughgoing effort to deal with Francis of Assisi and his visit to Damietta is G. Golubovich, "San Francesco e i Francescani in Damiata, 5 Nov. 1219—2 Feb. 1220," Studi Francescani, XXIII (n.s., XII; 1926), 307—330; and supplementing this, see P. L. Lemmens, "De Sancto Francisco Christum praedicante coram sultano Aegypti," Archivum historicum Franciscanum, XIX (1926), 559—578, and Nazzareno Jacopozzi, "Dove sia evvenuta Ia visita di San Francesco d'Assisi al Sultano Malek el-Kamel," Congrés international de géographie, le Caire — Avril, 1925, V (Cairo, 1926), and more recently M. Roncaglia, "San Francesco d'Assisi in Oriente," Studi Francescani, L (1953), 97—106. Biographical works dealing with leading personages are L. Böhm, Johann von Brienne (Heidelberg, 1938); J. Clausen, Papst Honorius III., 1216—1227 (Bonn, 1895); O. Hassler, Felagius Galvani (Basel, 1902); J. P. Donovan, S.J., Felagius and the Fifth Crusade (diss., University of Pennsylvania; Philadelphia, 1950); D. Mansilla, "El Cardenal hispano Pelayo Gaitan (1206—1230)," Anthologica Annua, I(1953), 11-66, a spirited defense, based chiefly on the papal letters; W. Junckmann, "Magister Oliverius Scholasticus, Bischof von Paderborn, Kardinalbischof von S. Sabina, und der Kreuzzug von Damiette," Katholische Zeitschrift (Munster, 1851); and L. C. F. Petit—Radel, "Olivier ou Olivarius,écolâtre de Cologne, cardinal évêque de Sabine," Histoire littéraire de la France, XVIII (1895), 14-29. 1 PL, CCXVI, cols. 823 ff.
Copyright 1969 The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. All rights reserved. Use of this material falling outside the purview of "fair use" requires the permission of the University of Wisconsin Press. To buy the paperback book, see: http://www.wisc.edu/wisconsinpress/books/1733.htm