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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311

V: The Fourth Crusade,   pp. 152-185 PDF (11.7 MB)

Page 157

contribute a thirtieth of their incomes, but had not yet paid even the fortieth
he had commanded.<10> Ralph de Diceto reports that the notary sent
from Rome to oversee the levy acted high-handedly, and there was a general
suspicion that such funds were apt to stick to the fingers of the Roman gentry.<11>
In speaking of the levy, Matthew Paris calls it a questionable exaction (argumentosa
extorsio), which future events were to show was displeasing to God.<12>
According to Ralph of Coggeshall the Cistercians protested against the pope's
attempt to collect the levy as a persecution of the order.<13> 
 There is no way of knowing how much money was collected locally under the
terms of this levy, or how much was actually transmitted to Rome. With all
this opposition, tacit and expressed, on the part of the clergy, the levy
was probably not very successful. Nor do we know what pecuniary results,
if any, attended the pope's tentative effort to extend the levy to monarchs
and nobles. In June 1201 the papal legate, Octavian, cardinal-bishop of Ostia,
who had succeeded cardinal Peter in France, made the proposal to the kings
of England and France. Philip Augustus and John met together and agreed to
contribute a fortieth of a year's income from their lands and the lands of
their vassals, on the condition that they should undertake the collection
themselves and decide how the money was to be used. The monarchs then issued
writs commanding their vassals to assess themselves in this amount.<14>
Of any money which may have been raised in this way, probably not much went
to defray the expenses of the crusade. Both Philip and John had other and
more pressing uses for any revenue they could collect. 
 As a further recruiting measure in France, on November 5, 1198, Innocent
III, presumably acting through Peter Capuano, had commissioned the parish
priest, Fulk of Neuilly, to preach the crusade to the people. For some two
or three years previously, Fulk 
 10 This letter, Verendum est, is found only in the Gesta, chap. LXXXIV (FL,
CCXIV, cols. 132 ff.). Potthast (no. 1045) dates it April-May 1200, but it
must have been written after April 1201, since it contains an unmistakable
reference to the pope's confirmation of the treaty between the Venetians
and the French envoys. See below, note 29. 
 11 Opera historica (Rolls Series, LXVIII), II, 168-169. 
 12 Historia Anglorum (Rolls Series, XLIV), II,  
 13 Chronicon Anglicanum (Rolls Series, LXVI), p. 130. Eventually, it seems,
the pope accepted a compromise with the Cistercians; Potthast (Regesta, no.
1435, July 1201) cites a letter of Innocent thanking abbot Arnold Amalric
of Citeaux and the chapter for the offer of 2,000 marks for the crusade.
 14 Roger of Hoveden (Chronica, IV, 187 ff.) tells of the meeting of the
kings and gives the writ issued by John. The writ of Philip Augustus is found
in Delisle, Catalogue des actes de Philippe Auguste, no. 619. See also Delaborde,
"A propos d'une rature dans une lettre de Philippe Auguste," Bibliotheque
de l'Ecole des chartes, LXIV (1903), 306 ff., and A. Cartel lieri, Philipp
II. August, IV, i, 77. 

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