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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The later Crusades, 1189-1311
(1969)

V: The Fourth Crusade,   pp. 152-185 PDF (13.5 MB)


Page 154

154 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES II 
failure.<1> Thereupon pope Innocent decided to take upon himself the
task of arousing Europe to a new effort to recover the Holy Land. In so doing,
he was reverting to Urban II's original conception of the crusade as a papal
responsibility, and simultaneously revealing his own exalted conception of
the role of the papacy in the affairs of Christendom. He announced the project
in an en cyclical sent out in August 1198 to the archbishops of the west,
to be communicated by them to the bishops and other clergy and to the faithful
of their provinces. <2> Innocent followed the traditional lines of
crusading propaganda, stressing his peculiar grief over the sufferings of
Jerusalem, denouncing the princes of the west for their luxury and vice and
wars among themselves, and summoning all Christians to win eternal salvation
by girding themselves for the holy war. Passing over monarchs and lesser
rulers, Innocent sent his summons to all cities, counts, and barons, whom
he commanded to raise troops in numbers proportionate to their resources,
and to send them overseas at their own expense by the following March, to
serve for at least two years. Archbishops, bishops, and abbots were to contribute
either armed men or an equivalent amount of money. Two cardinal-legates would
proceed to Palestine to act as the pope's representatives there in preparing
the way for the coming of the host. The proclamation included the usual inducements:
plenary indulgence for crusaders, papal protection for their possessions,
and a moratorium on the payment of debts and interest during their absence.
Innocent then wrote to king Philip Augustus of France and king Richard the
Lionhearted of England, who had been at war ever since Richard's return from
captivity in 1194, admonishing them, under penalty of an interdict to be
laid on their lands, to make peace or at least a five years' truce with each
other, not only because the war they were waging was causing untold miseries
to the common people of their realms, but also because it would interfere
with the recruiting of troops for the crusade he was inaugurating.<3>
The two cardinals who were eventually to go to Palestine were in the meantime
employed on special tasks at home: cardinal Soffredo 
royaume franc de Jerusalem, III (Paris, 1936), 173 ff.; F. I. Uspenskii,
Istoriya vizantiiskoi imperii, III (Moscow-Leningrad, 1948), 367 ff.; M.
A. Zaborov, "Krestovye pokhody v russkoi burzhuaznoi istoriografii,"
Vizantiiskii vremennik, n.s., IV (1951), 176 ff.; G. Ostrogorsky, History
of the Byzantine State (tr. Joan Hussey, London, 1956), pp. 330 ff.; S. Runciman,
A History of the Crusades, III (Cambridge, 1954), 107 ff. 
 1 See above, chapter III, pp. 116-121. 
 2 Innocent III, Epp., an. I, no. 336 (PL, CCXIV, cols. 308 ff.). 
 3 Innocent III, Epp., an. I, no. 355 (FL, CCXIV, cols. 329 ff.). 


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