Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The later Crusades, 1189-1311
V: The Fourth Crusade, pp. 152-185 PDF (13.5 MB)
154 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES II failure.<1> Thereupon pope Innocent decided to take upon himself the task of arousing Europe to a new effort to recover the Holy Land. In so doing, he was reverting to Urban II's original conception of the crusade as a papal responsibility, and simultaneously revealing his own exalted conception of the role of the papacy in the affairs of Christendom. He announced the project in an en cyclical sent out in August 1198 to the archbishops of the west, to be communicated by them to the bishops and other clergy and to the faithful of their provinces. <2> Innocent followed the traditional lines of crusading propaganda, stressing his peculiar grief over the sufferings of Jerusalem, denouncing the princes of the west for their luxury and vice and wars among themselves, and summoning all Christians to win eternal salvation by girding themselves for the holy war. Passing over monarchs and lesser rulers, Innocent sent his summons to all cities, counts, and barons, whom he commanded to raise troops in numbers proportionate to their resources, and to send them overseas at their own expense by the following March, to serve for at least two years. Archbishops, bishops, and abbots were to contribute either armed men or an equivalent amount of money. Two cardinal-legates would proceed to Palestine to act as the pope's representatives there in preparing the way for the coming of the host. The proclamation included the usual inducements: plenary indulgence for crusaders, papal protection for their possessions, and a moratorium on the payment of debts and interest during their absence. Innocent then wrote to king Philip Augustus of France and king Richard the Lionhearted of England, who had been at war ever since Richard's return from captivity in 1194, admonishing them, under penalty of an interdict to be laid on their lands, to make peace or at least a five years' truce with each other, not only because the war they were waging was causing untold miseries to the common people of their realms, but also because it would interfere with the recruiting of troops for the crusade he was inaugurating.<3> The two cardinals who were eventually to go to Palestine were in the meantime employed on special tasks at home: cardinal Soffredo royaume franc de Jerusalem, III (Paris, 1936), 173 ff.; F. I. Uspenskii, Istoriya vizantiiskoi imperii, III (Moscow-Leningrad, 1948), 367 ff.; M. A. Zaborov, "Krestovye pokhody v russkoi burzhuaznoi istoriografii," Vizantiiskii vremennik, n.s., IV (1951), 176 ff.; G. Ostrogorsky, History of the Byzantine State (tr. Joan Hussey, London, 1956), pp. 330 ff.; S. Runciman, A History of the Crusades, III (Cambridge, 1954), 107 ff. 1 See above, chapter III, pp. 116-121. 2 Innocent III, Epp., an. I, no. 336 (PL, CCXIV, cols. 308 ff.). 3 Innocent III, Epp., an. I, no. 355 (FL, CCXIV, cols. 329 ff.).
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