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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume II: The later Crusades, 1189-1311
(1969)

IV: Byzantium and the Crusades, 1081-1204,   pp. [unnumbered]-151 PDF (14.1 MB)


Page 139

Ch. IV BYZANTIUM AND THE CRUSADES 139 
lated resentment of the native Greek populace coincided with reasons of policy
which may have contributed to the carefully planned attack. 
 On March 12, 1171, all Venetians in the empire were arrested and their goods
confiscated. The doge, Vitale Michiele, had to send a fleet to attack Dalmatia
and the Greek islands, though he was favorably disposed toward Byzantium
and wanted to maintain diplomatic relations. Manuel now realized the danger
of an alliance between Venice and Sicily, and began negotiations with Venice.
Nicetas Choniates says that he restored Venetian privileges and paid them
compensation and made peace,17 but Venetian sources suggest that the treaty
was probably not concluded or relations restored until the following reign,
that of Andronicus I. 18 Even then Venetian resentment remained. 
 In the Balkans and Hungary Manuel scored successes. Rascia, inclined to
be independent and open to approach from Latin powers, such as Sicily, had
put up irritating opposition, particularly under Stephen Nemanya, who became
"zupan" in either 1166 or 1167. Stephen approached Hungary and
Germany, and tried to stir up trouble in Dalmatia, where Manuel had restored
imperial control in 1166. He was finally subdued in 1172 and had to play
a humiliating part in Manuel's triumphal entry into Constantinople. 
 In Hungary, as elsewhere, Manuel took his father's policy a step further.
He not only intervened to his own advantage in disputed successions, but
went so far as to have in mind the acquisition of the whole country. He proposed
a novel solution to end the long hostility between Hungary and Constantinople.
After endless diplomacy, he agreed to recognize Stephen III as king in return
for his brother and heir Bela as hostage. Bela was to have Hungary's Croatian
and Dalmatian lands as appanage, and was to marry Manuel's heiress Maria.
The treaty of 1164 was executed only after further fighting, but by 1167
Manuel had Dalmatia, Croatia, Bosnia, and Sirmium. He planned to make Bela
his heir, and gave him the name of Alexius and the title of despot. He thus
hoped to secure Hungary and incorporate it into the empire, a plan similar
to that which he entertained from time to time with regard to Sicily. 
 The situation changed with the birth of his son in 1169. The betrothal of
Bela and Maria was dissolved, and Bela was reduced to the rank of a caesar
and married to Agnes of Ch√Ętillon, the daughter 
 17 Nicetas Choniates, Historia; De Manuele Comneno, V, (CSHB, p. 225). 
 18 Cf. Ostrogorsky, Byzantine State, p. 346. 


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