Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The later Crusades, 1189-1311
I: The Norman Kingdom of Sicily and the Crusades, pp. 2-43 PDF (16.9 MB)
Ch.I NORMAN KINGDOM OF SICILY AND THE CRUSADES 9 flicting German, papal, and Byzantine claims to Apulia, and by the latent antagonism between Genoa and Pisa. It is more than likely that the failure of the Byzantines to support either the invading armies of the German emperor Lothair II or the simultaneous rebellion of the Apulian barons in 1137 saved the kingdom of Sicily from destruction. By July 1139 Roger had not only recovered all his Italian possessions lost in the course of the war, but had also defeated a papal army and extracted recognition of his kingdom and kingship from pope Innocent II by the peace of Mignano.9 Bernard of Clairvaux, who had been the architect of the antiSicilian coalition, also made his peace with Roger. It was to be along lines laid down by Bernard, however, that the Byzantines and the refugee Apulian barons would plan a new political encirclement of the Sicilian king in the years 1140-1146, the period immediately preceding the Second Crusade. In spite of his struggle to hold the Italian mainland, Roger had not allowed his Mediterranean objectives to slip from sight. At Merseburg in 1135, when the great coalition against Sicily was born, Venetian and Byzantine ambassadors complained to Lothair that the "count of Sicily" had attacked the coast of Greece, that Sicilian ships were preying on Venetian merchantmen and had despoiled them of goods worth 40,000 talents, and that Roger "was conquering. . . Africa, which is known to be the third part of the world."10 Even more alarming, Roger had been trying to secure for himself the principality of Antioch, which had lost its ruler in seconde croisade," Revue d'histoire ecclésiastique, XLIX (1954), 116-151; R. Grousset, Histoire des croisades et du royaume franc de Jerusalem (3 vols., Paris, 1934-1936), II; B. Kugler, Studien zur Geschichte des zweiten Kreuzzuges (Stuttgart, 1866); G. Constable, "The Second Crusade as Seen by Contemporaries," Traditio, IX 2 13-279; H. Gleber, Papst Eugen III. (1145-1153) unter besonderer Berucksichtigung sciner politischen Tatigkeit (Jena, 1936); C. Cahen, La Syrie du nord d l'epoque des croisades (Paris, 1940); F. Chalandon, Les Comnene: Etudes surl'cmpire byzantin au XIe et au XIIe siecles (z vols., Paris, 1900-1912); and M. Mathieu, "La Sicile normande dans la poésie byzantine," Bolletino del Centro di studi filologici e linguistici siciliani, II(1954), I-28. P. Lamma, Comneni e Staufer: Ricerche sui rapporti fra Bisanzio e l' Occidente nel secolo XII, I (Rome, 1955), is important because of extensive quotations from sources not easily available, such as the epistolarium of Wibald of Stavelot. The work sums up the results of recent studies by P. Rassow, "Zum byzantinisch normannischen Krieg, 1147-1149," Mitteilungen des Instituts für österreichische Geschichts forschung, LXII 213-218, and K. Heilig, Ostrom und das deutsche Reich (Stuttgart, 1951). Innocent II invested Roger and his two sons, as, respectively, king of Sicily, duke of Apulia, and prince of Capua, the titles corresponding to the original divisions of Norman Italy. Roger received suzerainty as rex over all areas, but the pope reserved the right to invest separately the lord of each of the three portions. See Jaffe-Lowenfeld, Regesta pontificum Romanorum, nos. 8042-8043; Caspar, Roger II, pp. 229-230, and Regesten, no. 124; K. A. Kehr, Urkunden, pp. 253-254; and Chalandon, Domination normande, II, 91. 10 Annales Erphesfurdenses, ad ann. 1135 (ed. Holder-Egger), p. 42; cf. Bernhardi, Lothar von Supplinburg, p. 575, notes 33, 34.
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