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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The later Crusades, 1189-1311

I: The Norman Kingdom of Sicily and the Crusades,   pp. 2-43 PDF (16.9 MB)

Page 8

the seat of kings." 7 Although the title was later changed to emphasize
the original divisions of Norman Italy, and the papal right to the investiture
of each of them (regnum Siciliae, ducatus Apuliae, et principatus Capuae),
Christmas day of I 130 foreshadows the later kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
In the decade following, Roger had to fight against all the powers that saw
themselves threatened by the rise of a great new territorial state in the
heart of the Mediterranean: the pope, the German and Byzantine emperors,
and the three maritime republics of northern Italy-Venice, Genoa, and Pisa.8
Fortunately for Roger, cooperation among his enemies was seriously hampered
by con7 For Anacletus's bull of September 27, 1130, see Jaifé-Lowenfeld,
Regesta pontificum 
Romanorum, no. 8411; Caspar, Roger II, Regesten, no. 65. The full grant includes
the honor of Naples and military help from the population of Benevento. On
Roger's obligations, see Jaifé-Lowenfeld, no. 8413. On the coronation,
see Caspar, Roger II, pp. 96 f., and Chalandon, Domination normande, II,
7 if. The fact that the house of Hauteville owed the royal title originally
to a deal with the papacy, and with a schismatic pope at that, was glossed
over by later south Italian historians. Only Falco of Benevento mentions
the negotiations with Anacletus: see his Chronicon, ad ann. 1129 (Cronistie
scrittori, I, 201). Another difficulty was the Moslem tradition implicit
in the choice of Palermo as capital. Compare the somewhat obscure statement
by Alexander of Telese, De rebus gestis Rogerii, II, I (Cronisti e scrittori,
I, 101-102) about Palermo "quae olim sub priscis temporibus, super hanc
ipsam provinciam Reges nonnullos habuisse traditur quae postea, pluribus
evolutis annis, occulto Dei disponente judicio nunc usque sine Regibus mansit."
To make the title appear more legitimate, stories about a second coronation
were invented, among them that of Roger's coronation by Louis VII of France
upon his return from the Second Crusade, which is accepted by Virginia Berry
(volume I of the present work, chapter XV, p. 511). It is found in one of
the many interpolations in Romuald Guarna of Salerno's Chronicon (RISS, VII),
p. 218. 
 8 The main sources for Roger's foreign policy before and during the Second
Crusade are: 
Otto of Freising, Chronicon (ed. A. Hofmeister, Hanover, 1912); Gesta Friderici
I (ed. G. 
Waitz, Hanover, 1912); John of Salisbury, Historia pontificalis (ed. R. L.
Poole, Oxford, 1927); 
Annalista Saxo and Sigeberti continuatio Praemonstratensis (MGH, SS., VI);
Canonici Wise 
gradensis continuatio Cosmae chronicae Bohemorum (MGH, SS., IX); Annales
Annales Herbipolenses, and Annales Falidenses (MGH, SS., XVI); Annales Erphesfurdenses
0. Holder-Egger, Hanover, 1899); Historia Welforum Weingartensis (ed. E.
Konig in 
SchwcIbische Chroniken der Stauferzeit, I [1937]; and MGH, SS., XXI); Sancti
epistolae (FL, CLXXXII); Petri abbatis Cluniacensis epistolae (FL, CLXXXIX);
William of 
Tyre, Historia (RHC, 0cc., I); Odo of Deuil, De profectione Ludovici VII
in orientem (ed. and 
trans. V. G. Berry, New York, 1948); Romuald Guarna of Salerno, Chronicon
Historia ducum Veneticorum (MGH, SS., XIV); Andrea Dandolo, Chronicon (ed.
E. Pastorello, 
RISS, XII, 1938 if.); G. L. Tafel and G. M. Thomas, Urkunden zur álteren
Handels- und 
Staatsgeschichte der Republik Venedig (Fontes rerum Austriacarum, Vienna,
1856-1857); and 
Annales Cavenses (MGH, SS., III). Greek sources include John Cinnamus, Epitome
rerum ab 
Ioanne et Alexio Comnenis gestarum (CSHB, Bonn, 1836), and Nicetas Choniates,
(CSHB, Bonn, 1835). 
 For secondary works, see Chalandon, Domination normande, II, chaps. I-Iv;
Caspar, Roger II, pp. 1-236, 328-394; W. Bernhardi, Lothar von Supplinburg
(Leipzig, 1879), and Konrad III. (Leipzig, 1883); H. Bloch, "The Schism
of Anacletus II and the Grandfeuil Forgeries of Peter the Deacon," Traditio,
VIII (1952), 159-265; E. Vacandard, Vie de Saint Bernard, abbé de
Clairvaux (z vols., Paris, 1895); idem, "Saint Bernard et la seconde
croisade," Revue des questions historiques, XXXVIII (1885), 398-457;
E. Caspar, "Bernard von Chairvaux," Meister der Politik (3 vols.,
Stuttgart and Berlin, 1922-1923), III, 18 1-220; W. Williams, Saint Bernard
of Clairvaux (Westminster, Md., 1952); E. Willems, "CIteaux et Ia 

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