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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The later Crusades, 1189-1311

I: The Norman Kingdom of Sicily and the Crusades,   pp. 2-43 PDF (16.9 MB)

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Thessalonica and Constantinople.1 From the ports of the east coast of Sicily,
crusaders could reach Syria and Palestine by the shortest route. And since
the northern tip of Tunisia was less than a hundred miles distant from its
southwestern corner, the kingdom might even take up the fight against Islam
in Africa. Furthermore, Sicily was rich in resources: the soil was fruitful,
and the proceeds of commerce and industry large. Its kings, should they care
to do so, could 
feodal de l'Italie normande (Paris, 1940); E. Besta, Il Diritto pubblico
nell' Italia meridionale (Padua, 1939); H. Niese, Die Gesetzgebung der normannischen
Dynastie im 'Regnum Siciliae' (Halle, 1910); E. Jamison, The Norman Administration
of Apulia and Capua, more especially under Roger II and William I, 1127-1166
(Papers of the British School at Rome, VI, Rome, 1913); F. Ciccaglione, "La
Vita economica siciliana nel periodo normanno-suevo, "Archivio storico
per la Sicilia orientale, X (1913), 321-345; G. Coniglio, "Amalfi e
il commercio Amalfitano," Nuova rivista storica, XXVIII-XXIX (1944-1945),
100-114; A. de Stefano, "La Cultura in Sicilia nel periodo normanno,"
in Il Regno normanno, pp. 127-194; F. Giunta, Bizantini e bizantinismo nell'
Sicilia normanna (Palermo, 1950); and L. T. White, Latin Monasticism in Norman
Sicily (Cambridge, Mass., 1938). Various aspects of the history of the kingdom
of Sicily are presented in the voluminous Atti del Convegno internazionale
di studi ruggeriani (VIII Centenario della morte di Ruggero II, 2 vols.,
Palermo, 1955), and in Studi medievali in onore di A. de Stefano (Palermo,
 Among works on king Roger II, founder of the dynasty, the only one of independent
scholarly value is E. Caspar, Roger II. (1101-1154) und die Gründung
der normannisch sizilischen Monarchie (Innsbruck, 1904). While Caspar's mastery
of the sources is unsurpassed, his interpretation suffers from an overemphasis
on power politics, typical of the German scholars of his generation. An appendix
of Regesten is added to the work (pp. 48 1-580), which has been supplemented
by P. Colluri, "Appendice al regesto dei diplomi di re Ruggero compilato
da E. Caspar," Atti del Convegno di studi ruggeriani, II, 545-626. E.
Curtis, Roger of Sicily and the Normans in Lower Italy (New York, 1912) is
richly documented but not always reliable. On Roger see also E. Pontieri,
"I Normanni e la fondazione del regno di Sicilia," and P. S. Leicht,
"Lo Stato normanno" (both in Il Regno normanno, pp. 1-52); Pontieri's
study has been republished in his Tra i Normanni nell' Italia meridionale
(Naples, 1948). C. A. Garufi, "Ruggiero II e la fondazione della monarchia
di Sicilia," Archivio storico siciliano, LII (1932), 1-33, is valuable
mainly because of its bibliography. See also W. Holtz mann, Il Regno di Ruggero
II e gli inizi di un sistema di stati europei," Atti del Convegno di
studi ruggeriani, I, 29-45. For the reign of William I, see C. B. Siragusa,
Il Regno di Guglielmo I in Sicilia (Palermo, 1929). The only existing monograph
on William II, by I. La Lumia, Storia della Sicilia sotto Guglielmo il Buono
(Florence, 1867), needs revision. 
 On the Mediterranean policy of the Norman kings, see F. Cerone, L'Opera
politica e militare di Ruggiero II in Africa ed in Oriente (Catania, 1913);
A. Cartellieri, Der Vorrang des Papsttums zur Zeit der ersten Kreuzzuge (Munich,
1941); and the works of G. M. Monti, Il Mezzogiorno d'Italia nel medioevo
(Ban, 1930), L'Italia e le crociate in Terra Santa (Naples, 1940), and La
Espansione mediterranea del mezzogiorno d'Italia e della Sicilia (Bologna,
1942). Of these, the last is the most important. Monti's views are stimulating
but his references to sources are not always accurate. See also R. Cessi,
"Il Problema adriatico al tempo di Ruggero II," Atti del Convegno
di studi ruggeriani, I, 53-72; 0. Vehse, "Die Normannen im Mittelmeer,"
Die Welt als Geschichte, V 25-58, 233-276; and H. Hochholzer, "Sizilien
als Beispiel der mittelmeerischen Kulturschichtung," Hist. Zeitschr.,
CLV (1937), 1-27. 
 On the Sicilian navy, see C. Manfroni, Storia della marina italiana dalle
invasioni bar bariche al trattato di Ninfeo (Leghorn, 1899), and W. Cohn,
Die Geschichte der normannisch sicilischen Flotte unter der Regierung Rogers
I. und Rogers II. (Breslau, 1910). 
 1 See H. Hagenmeyer's notes to Anonymigesta Francorum (Heidelberg, 1890),
pp. 135-137. On the geographical conditions, see S. Runciman, A History of
the Crusades (3 vols., Cam bridge, 1951-1954), II, 251; Villars, Les Normands
en Méditerranée, pp. 191-192; A. v. Hof mann, Das Land Italien
und seine Geschichte (Stuttgart and Berlin, 1921), chs. XIII, XIV; Vehse,
"Die Normannen im Mittelmeer," Die Welt als Geschichte, V, 151
if.; and Hochholzer, Sizilien als Beispiel der mittelmeerischen Kulturschichtung,"
Hist. Zeitschr., CLV, 7 ff. 

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