Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The later Crusades, 1189-1311
A Note on Transliteration and Nomenclature, pp. xix-xxii PDF (1.5 MB)
xxii A NOTE ON TRANSLITERATION AND NOMENCLATURE back instead of front vowels, and its elimination by the Turks is commendable. Persian names have been transliterated like Arabic with certain modifications, chiefly use of the additional vowels e and o and replacing d and dh with z and z :(<see image>, so that Arabic "Adharbaijãn" becomes Persian "Azerbaijan", more accurate as well as more recognizable. Omission of the definite article from personal names was considered but eventually disapproved. Armenian presented great difficulties: the absence of an authoritative reference source for spelling names, the lack of agreement on transliteration, and the sound-shift by which classical and eastern Armenian b, d, g became western Armenian p, t, k and - incredible as it may seem to the unwary - vice versa; similar reciprocal interchanges involved ts and dz, and ch and j. The following alphabet represents western Armenian letters, with eastern variants in parentheses: a, p (b), k (g), t(d), e, z, e(overbar), i, t, zh, i, l, kh, dz (ts), g (k), h, ts (dz), gh, j (ch), m, y, n, sh, o, ch, b (p), ch (j), r, s, v, d (t), r, ts, u or v, p, k, o, f :(<see image>. Many spellings are based on the Armenian texts in the Recueil des historiens des croisades. In standardizing names of groups, the correct root forms in the respective languages have been hopefully identified, with the ending "-id" for dynasties and their peoples but "-ite" for sects, and with plural either identical with singular (as Kirghiz) or plus "-s" (Khazars) or "-es" (Uzes). In cases where this sounded hopelessly awkward, it was abandoned (Muwahhids, not Muwahhidids or Muwahhidites and certainly not Almohads, which is, however, cross-referenced). The use of place names is explained in the note preceding the gazetteer, but may be summarized by saying that in general the most familiar correct form is used in the text and maps, normally an English version of the name by which the place was known to Europeans during the crusades. Variant forms are given and identified in the gazetteer. Despite conscientious efforts to perfect the nomenclature, errors will probably be detected by specialists; they are to be blamed on me and not on individual contributors or editorial colleagues, for I have been accorded a free hand. Justifiable suggestions for improvements will be welcomed, and used to bring succeeding volumes nearer that elusive goal, impeccability in nomenclature. HARRY W. HAZARD [Princeton, New Jersey, 1962] Reprinted from Volume I, with minor modifications.
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