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Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume III: The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries

XVII: The Crusades against the Hussites,   pp. 586-646 ff. PDF (16.2 MB)

Page 587

the people of Bohemia and Moravia, the majority Czechs, a minority Germans,
were involved. To some extent the term "civil war" could also be used in
relation to the other dependencies of the Crown of St. Wenceslas, the duchies
of Upper and Lower Silesia and the margraviates of Upper and Lower Lusatia.
Their ethnic composition, however, was overwhelmingly non-Czech, with a German
majority and a Slavic minority—Polish and Lusatian Sorb. On the whole
these northern dependencies belong among the countries whose rulers would
try to intervene, for political and religious reasons, in Bo hemian events.
1875, and 1877). No other work has presented the material as clearly and
objectively, although Bezold did not as yet have all today's source material
at his disposal; e.g., Deutsche Reichstagsakten, vols. VIII and IX (Munich,
1867—1886; repr. Göttingen; cited as RTA). Excellent also is Bezold's
more ideological work Zur Geschichte des Hussitenthums (Munich, 1874). In
the framework of later German history the work of A. Bachmann, Geschichte
Böhmens, vol. II (Gotha, 1905; mainly chapters 4—6, pp. 142—342)
is of some value, but since then few contributions were made in German until
the important produc tion by F. Seibt, Hussitica: Zur Struktur einer Revolution
(Cologne and Graz, 1965), and his concise but highly reliable contribution,
"Die Zeit der Luxemburger und der Hus sitischen Revolution," in vol. I of
the Handbuch der Geschichte der böhmischen Lander, ed. K. Bosl (Stuttgart,
1967). In French the most valuable work is Ernest Denis, Hus et la guerre
des Hussites (Paris, 1878). In English the history of Hussitism, with special
emphasis also upon the religious background and the influence of the papacy,
was first presented in a careful treatment by Bishop Mandel Creighton, A
History of the Papacy from the Great Schism to the Sack of Rome (London,
1899), vol. II, especially chapters III to VI (pp. 171—321). A more
popular treatment was Count [F. H. H. V. von] Lutzow's The Hussite Wars (London,
1914). In 1955 appeared John Zizka and the Hussite Revolution by the present
author (Princeton; repr. New York, 1969), which puts its emphasis, in the
phase from 1419 to 1424, on political and military events, whereas H. Kaminsky's
valuable work A History of the Hussite Revolution (Berkeley and Los Angeles,
1967) puts its emphasis on ideological and to some extent sociological issues
and accordingly begins with the prehistory of the Hussite wars, also ending
in 1424. The huge bibliography on Hussitism and Wyclifism before the wars
cannot be mentioned here, but will be found in the bibliographies of some
of the listed works, including the two mentioned last. 
In addition to the original source works mentioned in relation to Palacky,
a few other basic source works should be mentioned. There are the contemporary
chronicles called "Stari letopisové cesti" (Old Czech Annalists),
published in three versions, first by Palacky (reprinted by Charvát
in 1941, and completed by publishing in 1945 parts which had been eliminated
by Nazi censorship); the Vratislavsky rukopis (Breslau edition) published
by F. Simek (Prague, 1937); and the Krizovnicky rukopis published by M. Kanák
and F. Simek (Prague, 1959); the last two are somewhat more thoroughly exact
than the combined versions of Palacky. Of the greatest importance is the
"Chronicle of Lawrence [Vavrinec] of Brezová," without which our knowledge
of the Hussite revolution, especially during the early phases, would be far
more scanty; see J. Goll, ed., Fontes rerum Bohemicarum, V (Prague, 1893),
327—541. In the same publication, the "Chronicle of Bartosek of Drahonice"
(pp. 589—628) is valuable. Of considerable importance also, as a contemporary
report of the history of Sigismund, is the account by his financial counselor
and biographer Eberhart Windecke, published by W. Altmann under the title
DenkwUrdigkeiten zur Ge schichte des Zeitalters Kaiser Sigmunds (Berlin,
1893). For further original sources and secondary works see the bibliographies
in the works by H. Kaminsky and F. G. Heymann mentioned above. 

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