Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume III: The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries
XVI: The German Crusade on the Baltic, pp. 545-585 PDF (12.5 MB)
Ch. XVI THE GERMAN CRUSADE ON THE BALTIC 585 existence until 1561, because of the energy of its provincial master Walter of Plettenberg (1499—1535) in saving Livonia from Russia. It was to end like the Prussian branch. The last master of Livonia, Gotthard Kettler, would be permitted to transform Kurland and Zemgalia into a secular duchy of Courland with its capital at Mitau, to be held by Kettler and his family under the suzerainty of PolandLithuania. The remainder of Livonia would be incorporated into Poland-Lithuania as the principality of Transdaugava. Its extent, however, would by then have been reduced by neighboring states struggling for that control of the Baltic which the order had failed to establish: by a Denmark which had acquired the estates of the bishop of Osel; by a Sweden which had taken Reval; and by a Russia which had taken Dorpat and eastern Estonia.
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