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Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume III: The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries

XV: The Mongols and Western Europe,   pp. [unnumbered]-544 PDF (10.5 MB)

Page 513

 In this chapter an attempt will be made to give a succinct but comprehensive
picture of the relations that existed between the Mongols and western Europe,
with particular emphasis on their effect upon the crusades. To achieve this
aim it will be necessary to start with the period of the Second Crusade,
and thus to go over ground partially covered—from a different point
of view—in previous volumes. An effort has been made to avoid needless
duplication and, by relating this material to relevant parts of the chapters
contributed to this volume by other historians, to reconstruct the links
estab lished for the first time in recorded history between the eastern and
western borderlands of the Eurasian continent. 
The number of relevant primary sources is so great that an enumeration would
be both impracticable and superfluous. Evidence can be culled from innumerable
western and Iranian sources of the 13th and 14th centuries. The footnotes
will show which chronicles or other documents yielded the principal data
The following collections of sources were particularly useful: Girolamo Golubovich,
Bibliotheca bio-bibliografica della Terra Santa e deli' Oriente francescano
(vols. I—V, Quaracchi, 1906—1927); Anastasius van den Wyngaert,
Sinica franciscana, I, Itinera et relationes Fratrum Minorum saeculi XIII
et XIV (Quaracchi, 1929); Recueil des historiens des croisades: Documents
arméniens, vol. II (Paris, 1906), which contains, among other sources,
La Flor des estoires de la terre d'Orient by the Armenian Hayton, Directorium
ad passagium faciendum by the Pseudo-Brocardus, De modo Saracenos extirpandi
by William Adam, and Les Gestes des Chiprois. The appendix of Johannes Laurentius
Mosheim, Historia Tartarorum ecciesiastica (Helmstadt, 1741) remains a useful
collection of docu ments. There are no primary Mongol narrative sources of
importance from the point of view of western-Mongol relations. Other Mongol
documents, such as letters, will be quoted where necessary. 
Denis Sinor, Introduction a l'étude de l'Eurasie centrale (Wiesbaden,
1963), contains an annotated bibliography of works dealing with Mongol history
(pp. 294—3 19), with partic ular reference to relations with the west
(pp. 314—318). The usefulness of Aziz S. Atiya, The Crusade: Historiography
and Bibliography (Bloomington, Indiana, 1962), although considerable, is
greatly reduced by the total inadequacy of its index. There is a good bibliography
in Bertold Spuler, Die Mongolen in Iran: Politik, Verwaltung und Kultur der
Ilchanzeit (2nd ed., Wiesbaden, 1965). 

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