Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume III: The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries
XII: The Spanish and Portuguese reconquest, 1095-1492, pp. 396-456 PDF (13.3 MB)
454 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES III property rights. All remaining fortresses and artillery in the kingdom were to be turned over, and Boabdil was to become lord of a small territory in the Alpujarras on the southern slopes of the Sierra Nevada. Although the end of March had been fixed for actual surrender of the city, Boabdil's concern over his fate, as news of his submission spread, led him to fix January 2, 1492, as the day of Christian occupation. On this date were set in train the last events in the long drama of the reconquest: the installation of the new Christian garrison and its alcaide, Iñigo LOpez de Mendoza, count of Tendilla; the raising of the cross and the royal banner of Castile over the Aihambra's highest tower; the departure of the fallen Boabdil for the seigneury in the Alpujarras that he soon exchanged for exile in Africa; and, on Epiphany, January 6, in an atmosphere of high religious and national exaltation, the solemn entry of the Catholic Kings into the city of Granada and through the gates of the Nasrid palace of the Alhambra. The fall of the small Nasrid kingdom of Granada eight centuries after Tãriq ibn-Ziyad's landing at Gibraltar, and 400 years after Zallaca and Clermont, signalizes the formal close of the reconquest, but of course this does not mean the end of the Moorish problem or of Iberian territorial expansion toward the south and Africa. After 1492 numerous Moslems or imperfectly Christianized Moriscos con tinued to live as Spanish subjects in Granada, Andalusia, Murcia, Aragon, and Valencia, and in this story there are other chapters: the collapse by 1499—1500 of the so-called capitulations of Santa Fe made with Boabdil, the royal pragmatic of 1502 compelling conver sion or expulsion of the Castilian Moors, the revolts of the Moriscos in 1506 and 1568—1570, the problem of clandestine Moorish col lab oration with the Turks, and the final Morisco expulsion in 1609. We have already noted the Portuguese renewal of the reconquest in Morocco from 1415 on, and can now observe how at the very time of the Granadan war other commanders of the Catholic Kings were engaged in the conquest, Christianization, and colonization of the Canary islands, which Spaniards regarded as a continuation of the peninsular reconquest.32 Even more directly, the debarkations of Spanish troops in North Africa—at Melilla in 1497 under Peter 32. Cf. R. B. Merriman, The Rise of the Spanish Empfre in the Old World and the New (4 vols., New York, 1918—1934), II, chapters 16, 18;F. Perez Embid, Los Descubrimientos en el A tlántico y la rivalidad casrellano-portuguesa hasta el Tratado de Tordesillas (Seville, 1948; Publicaciones de la Escuela de estudios hispano-americanos, series 2, no. 6).
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