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Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume III: The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries
(1975)

XII: The Spanish and Portuguese reconquest, 1095-1492,   pp. 396-456 PDF (13.3 MB)


Page 401

Ch. XII SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE RECONQUEST 401 
upon the king-emperor at Zallaca, north of Badajoz.4 The immediate consequences
of this Murabit victory should not be over-estimated: 
Toledo remained firmly in Christian hands; in 1089 Alfonso could still optimistically
plant a strong garrison at Aledo in distant Murcia and successfully throw
back Yüsuf's counter-attack upon this pro jected base; and he could
take under his protection two Taifa kings who now feared the ferocious Berbers
even more than the Christians, ' Abd-Allãh of Granada and al-Mutawakkil
of Badajoz, receiving from the latter the key lower Tagus strongholds of
Santarem, Sintra (Cintra), and Lisbon. In 1094 his virtually independent
vassal, the Cid Rodrigo DIaz of Vivar, after overrunning the northern half
of the kingdom of Valencia and seizing its rich capital city, was able to
defeat at Llano de Cuarte a Murãbit-Andalusian army sent against him.
 Indeed, for Spain as a whole about 1090 the frontier belt separat ing Christian
and Moorish territories had not yet been forced north ward because of Zallaca.
Starting at the Atlantic on the northern 
 4. Among narrative sources on the Christian side, in addition to Rodrigo
of Toledo, Lucas of Tuy, and the Primera crdnica general, there are the Anales
toledanos, I and II (ed. H. Florez, Espaha sagrada, XXIII, 381—409);
Chronica Adefonsi imperatoris (ed. Luis Sanchez Belda, Madrid, 1950); Gesta
comitum Barcinonensium (ed. L. Barrau-Dihigo and J. MassO Torrents, Barcelona,
1925); J. M. Lacarra, "Documentos para el estudio de la reconquista y repoblaciOn
del valle del Ebro," Estudios de edad media de la Corona de AragOn, 11(1946),
469—574; III (1947—1948), 499—727; V (1952), 511—668;
Liber Maiolichinus (ed. C. Calisse, Rome, 1904; Fonti per la storia d'Italia);
Laurentius Veronensis, De hello balearico, in PL, CLXIII, cols. 5 13—576;
Chronicon conimbricense and Chronica Gothorum (Portu galiae monumenta historica,
SS, I; Pimenta, Fontes, pp. 1—47). Cf. also Documentos medievais portugueses:
Documentos régios, I, vols. I—II (ed. R. Pinto de Azevedo, Lisbon,
195 8—1 962). 
 On the Second Crusade's Iberian interventions, see De expugnatione Lyxbonensi
(Portu galiae monumenta historica, SS, I; ed. C. W. David, De expugnatione
Lyxbonensi: The Conquest of Lisbon, Columbia University Records of Civilization,
XXIV, New York, 1936); the supplementary texts of Lisbon in Pimenta, Fontes,
pp. 107—146; Poema de Almerla (ed. Sanchez Belda, Chronica Adefonsi
imperatoris, pp. 165—206; and Caffaro di Caschifellone, Ystoria captionis
Almarie et Turtuose, in Annali genoves4 I (ed. L. T. Belgrano and C. Imperiale,
Genoa, 1890; Fonti per la storia d'Italia, XI), 79—89. 
 On the secondary level, see R. Menendez Pidal, La España del Cid
(6th ed., Madrid, 1967); D. Peres, Como nasceu Portugal (5th ed., Porto,
1959); J. M. Lacarra, "La Reconquista y repoblación del valle del
Ebro," in Reconquista española, pp. 39—83; A. Ubieto Arteta,
Coleccion diplomdtica de Pedro I de Aragdn y Navarra (Saragossa, 1951), Introduction,
pp. 17—208; and J. Gonzalez, "Reconquista y repoblacion de Castilla,
Leon, Extremadura y Andalucia (siglos XI a XIII)," in Reconquista espanola,
pp. 163—181. On the wars of Murabit al-Andalus, see A. Huici, "Los
Banu Hud de Zaragoza, Alfonso I el Batallador y los Almorávides,"
Estudios de edad media de la Corona de Aragdn, VII (1962), 7—32; idem,
"Contribucion al estudio de la dinastia almorávide: El gobierno de
Täsfin ben ' Ali ben Yusuf en el Andalus," Etudes d'orientalisme dédiées
a la mémoire de Levi-Provençal (2 vols., Paris, 1962), pp.
605—621; and F. Codera y Zaidin, Decadencia y desapariciOn de los Almordvides
en España (Saragossa, 1899). 


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