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Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume III: The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries
(1975)

VIII: The Hospitallers at Rhodes, 1306-1421,   pp. 278-313 PDF (20.9 MB)


Page 308

308 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES 
abandoned), as well as Kalavryta, held by May 1400. Theodore received 43,000
ducats for the castellanies of Corinth and Kalavryta, and reserved the right
to repurchase his lands at will. The Hospitallers defended Corinth, but despite
their attempts to conciliate the popu lace, they were Latins and aroused
the old resentments; at Mistra Theodore had to intervene to pacify an uprising
against them. In May 1402 the Hospitallers were prepared for Theodore to
demand the repurchase of his lands. The brethren were, however, clearly an
obstacle to Bayazid, who, with Timur's armies advancing against him, offered
Theodore peace on condition that the Hospitallers leave Greece.60 
 In July 1402 the Ottomans were decisively defeated by Timur at Ankara. Smyrna,
garrisoned by only two hundred knights under an Aragonese Hospitaller, Iñigo
of Alfaro, was in serious danger. The admiral, Buffilo Panizzatti, was sent
to strengthen the fortifications there, while Dominic de Alamania went to
Chios to prevent the Genoese allying with Timur. Smyrna had resisted Ottoman
assaults and now rejected Timur's offer to accept tribute. His troops attacked
with siege-engines, mined the walls, blocked the harbor entrance with stones,
and took Smyrna by assault during December after nearly fifteen days of valiant
resistance against odds. Some Hospitallers escaped by sea, but Timur's army
massacred large numbers of Chris tian refugees and razed Smyrna to the ground.61
Timur's campaign temporarily checked Ottoman expansion; it also ended the
strain on the Hospitallers' resources involved in defending Smyrna, and it
led to the Hospital's withdrawal from mainland Greece. 
 In 1403 the Hospitallers were arranging for a renewal of the treaty of 1370
with Egypt. General agreement had been reached by April, but in June the
French marshal Boucicault arrived at Rhodes with the Genoese feet, intending
to attack Alexandria. Boucicault was also involved in Genoese quarrels in
Cyprus, where three Genoese galleys, inappropriately commanded by the Hospitaller
preceptor of Genoa, had arrived in 1402. Naillac diverted Boucicault to a
temporarily successful attack on the Turks at Alaya,62 and himself sailed
to 
60. These events, and especially their chronology, remain obscure. Many errors
of 
Delaville Le Roulx and others are corrected in Loenertz, Byzantine et Franco-Graeca,
p. 
248, note 5, and pp. 254—265. See also Malta, cod. 330, folios 118v-119r,
120v, 122v123r, 125v-126r, 126v; cod. 331, folios 162r, 162v, 163r, 174r;
cod. 332, folios 160v164'; cod. 334, folios 147r-148r, Cf. above, pp. 160—161,
and on leagues and relations with 
Manuel in 1390 and from 1396 to 1404, see J. Barker, Manuel II Palaeologus
(1391—1425): 
A Study in Late Byzantine Statesmanship (New Brunswick, 1969), pp. 76—77,
146, 
168—169, 171 note 84, 204 and note 5, 224, 232—233, 259, 482—485.
 61. Delaville Le Roulx, Rhodes, pp. 283—286; on Dominic's mission,
see N. Iorga,Notes et extraits pour servir a l'histoire des croisades au
XVe siècle, I (Paris, 1899), 135—136. 
 62. Piloti had a story that the Hospital agreed to pay Boucicault 40,000
ducats for Alaya 


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