Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume III: The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries
VIII: The Hospitallers at Rhodes, 1306-1421, pp. 278-313 PDF (20.9 MB)
Ch. VIII THE HOSPITALLERS AT RHODES, 1306—1421 297 where in the principality of Achaea, possibly at Corinth. The Ange yin rulers of Achaea rejected the idea and entrusted Corinth to Nicholas Acciajuoli in 1358. The project was abandoned if not forgotten; it may have met opposition at Rhodes, but it indicated some awareness that the brethren might be more effectively and honorably employed.40 After Umur's death the Turks of Altoluogo and Palatia were less dangerous, but a sporadic piratical conflict continued at sea. With peace between Venice and Genoa, the league to defend Smyrna was revived in 1356; that autumn the Hospital's galleys lay ready, but the Venetian preparations were delayed and there was no significant action. In June and July 1358 a hundred Hospitallers were sum moned to Rhodes, and in 1359 the pope appointed the Florentine Hospitaller Nicholas Benedetti as captain of Smyrna for eight years. Benedetti was to fortify the town with walls and towers and to maintain 150 Latin mercenaries and two galleys; he received a papal license to send one ship and two galleys to trade at Alexandria to finance these measures, while he and his brothers, who were granted rights of succession during his eight-year tenure, were to retain any territory they might capture from the Moslems. Probably in 1359, a fleet which included a Rhodian contingent under Raymond Béren ger, preceptor of Cos, burned thirty-five Turkish ships off Megara in Greece. Late in 1359 the Gascon Carmelite Peter Thomas, newly appointed as papal legate, visited Smyrna, where he organized the defenses and forced the Turks of Altoluogo to pay tribute. From 1363 until 1371 the captain of Smyrna was Peter Racanelli, an important Genoese of Chios, and the pope and the Hospital were sharing the cost of Smyrna's defense, 6,000 forms yearly. In Byzantium itself, civil war had weakened resistance to the Turks. Innocent VI had made it clear that the price of Latin assis tance was Greek submission in matters of faith, and in 1353 he had instructed the Hospitallers and others to help John VI Cantacuzenus in such circumstances. In 1354 the Ottoman Turks captured Gàlli poli, establishing themselves in Europe; in 1357 John V Palaeologus 40. Documents referring obscurely to a negotium principatus Achaye (Archivio Segreto Vaticano, Reg. Vat. 238, folios 64r—65v; 239, folios 74v-75r) were used, but inaccurately, by Bosio. Later scholars, notably K. Hopf, K. Herquet, and J. Delaville Le Roulx, misled by Bosio and by each other, have produced wildly fantastic interpretations of this negotium; [H.] Zeininger de Borja, "Les Hospitaliers de Saint-Jean de Jerusalem en Grèce conti. nentale," Rivista araldica, LVII (1959), 297—300, unfortunately followed them in these, as in various other errors (cf. below, p. 303, note 53).
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