Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume III: The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries
VI: The Catalans in Greece, 1311-1380, pp. 167-224 PDF (10.1 MB)
170 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES Athens.2 They served him for six months against the Greek rulers of Thessaly and Epirus and against the emperor Andronicus himself; they won him lands and castles in southern Thessaly; and when his use for them was done, he sought to dismiss them, although he still owed them four months' wages. He chose from among them two hundred knights and three hundred almogàvers; to these he paid what he owed them, gave them lands, and enfranchised them; the others he ordered to be gone. But the Company claimed the right to hold of him, as fiefs, some strongholds which they had taken in southern Thessaly, and which they refused to give up to him, for they had nowhere else to go. The duke of Athens and the Catalan Company spent the fall and winter of 1310—1311 in preparation for the struggle which should decide who would go and who would stay. The Company was 2. The chronology of the movements of the Catalan Company has caused muchdiffi culty. Roger de Flor and the Company arrived in Constantinople some time in September 1303 (their arrival has often been, by error, referred to the second half of 1302): they are declared in a Venetian document dated September 27, 1319, to have sacked the island of Ceos, on their way, on August 18, 1303 (G. M. Thomas, ed., Diplomatarium veneto-levanti num, I [1880, repr. 1965], no. 76, p. 138, and cf. nos. 77, 79, pp. 149, 163; Rubió, Dipl., doc. CXI, p. 135, and cf. doc. CXIII, pp. 137—13 8). The Company had more or less fixedly encamped in Gallipoli by October 1304, where they remained, after the murder of Roger de Flor (April 30, 1305), until June 1307; all the events described in Muntaner, Cronica, ch. CCXXX-CCXXXVI (ed. Lanz, pp. 407—423; ed. E. B., VI, 7 8—99), took place in June, July, and August of 1307. Rubió's Dipl., docs. I-XLIV, pp. 1—55, is a most valuable and convenient assemblage of documents concerning the Company's eastern expedition and its early leaders, especially Berenguer de Entença. The Greeks had reason to fear the Catalans. Although on October 30, 1303, king James II of Aragon wrote Berenguer de Entenca and Roger de Flor, thanking them for their assistance in arranging a projected alliance with emperor Andronicus II Palaeologus (Dipl., doc. IX, pp. 9—10), the intentions of Roger de Flor became not unreasonably suspect by the early summer of 1304, when his former employer king Frederick II of Sicily may have entertained the hope of conquering the Byzantine empire (Dipl., doc. XI, pp. 11—12, dating from early July 1304: "Item fa a saber lo dit senyor rey Frederic. . . que ell [enten] sobra lo feit de Romania, ço es asaber de conquerirla. . ."). A letter of May 10, 1305, written by Entenca from Gallipoli to Peter Gradenigo, doge of Venice, relates that "ad presens guerificamus cum domino imperatore [Andronico II Palaeologo] ," and informs him briefly "de statu nostro et homicidio infideliter facto [i.e., Rogerii] de mandato eiusdem domini imperatoris per Michaelem [IX] filium eiusdem" (I Libri commemoriali de!!a repub!ica di Venezia: Regesti, lib. I, no. 240, ed. R. Predelli, I [Venice, 1876], 51; published in full in Dipl., doc. XIV, pp. 15—16). The memorandum published by Heinrich Finke, Acta aragon ensia, II (Berlin and Leipzig, 1908), no. 431, pp. 681—686, and reprinted by Rubio, Dipl., doc. XV, pp. 16—19, summarily traces the history of the Company from Sicily through some of their eastern adventures until Entenca was captured by Genoese assisting the emperor, and up to the point where the Catalans achieved an obscure victory over the Greeks about July 1, 1305 (on which see in general the data in Franz Dolger, Regesten der Kaiserurkunden des oströmischen Reiches, part 4 [Munich and Berlin, 1960], nos. 2246, 2249, 2252, 2258, 2263, 2268—2269, 2271, 2273—2274, 2277—2279, 2281—2282, 2285, pp. 38—46, and Roger Sablonier, Krieg und Kriegertum in der Crdnica des Ramon Muntaner [Berne and Frankfurt am M., 1971]).
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