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Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume III: The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries

I: The Crusade in the fourteenth century,   pp. 2-26 ff. PDF (69.3 KB)

Page 8

8 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES III 12. Ed. I. Salzinger, Opera omnia, 10 vols.
(Mainz, 1721—1740), IV; cf. A. Gottron,L'Edicio maguntina de Ramon
Lull (Barcelona, 1915). 
souls therewith. In order to achieve his aim, he bought a Moorish slave who
was a good enough scholar to teach him Arabic and thus enable him to preach
the Christian doctrine and attempt to refute Islam in the countries beyond
the sea. Thrice he crossed the western Mediterranean to the sultanate of
Tunisia, where he engaged himself in perilous discussions with the shaikhs
of Islam. During his first and second trips, he was able to formulate the
terms of his debate with them in his treatise called Disputatio Raymundi
Christiani et Hamar Saraceni, 12 but he was deported by the lenient Moslem
governor after a period of captivity. In his third crossing, after a relatively
peaceful stay among the Moslems of Tunis, he sallied into Bugia on the Algerian
coast, where he earned his much desired crown of martyrdom. At the age of
eighty-three, in the year 1315 or 1316, he stood in the middle of the town
market to preach his faith, but the fury of the fanatic Berbers led them
to stone him to death on the beach, where his body was picked up by a Genoese
ship and taken for interment in the cathedral of Palma on the island of Majorca.
 Contemporary with the movements identified with Nicholas IV on the one hand
and Raymond Lull on the other, there arose a royal center of propaganda at
the court of Philip IV the Fair, king of France (1285—1314). Philip's
reign was one of great moment in the annals of France, of the papacy, and
of Europe in general. He had visions of amalgamating France and the empire
under his own sover eignty. He disgraced Boniface VIII and succeeded in drawing
the papacy to France, at Avignon, with immeasurable consequences. He even
dreamt of the creation of a new eastern empire, including Byzantium together
with the Holy Land and the whole of the Mamluk sultanate of Egypt, under
the rule of one of his sons. Such visions of world hegemony in the age of
the crusades were bound to direct the king's attention to the possibilities
accruing from the leadership of the movement of holy war. The crusade, which
was a basic element in papal foreign policy, eventually became one of the
chief factors in the effort to impose the supremacy of the Roman see over
Europe. Thus Philip undoubtedly wanted to follow the example of the pontiff
and, by espousing the international cause, place himself at the head of the
Christian commonwealth. His advisors and courtiers naturally echoed the royal
aspirations in their propagandist writings. They included two great jurists,
Peter Dubois and William of Nogaret, as well as four men of action—Jacques
de Molay, grand master of the Templars, Fulk of Villaret, master of the Hospitallers,

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