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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume VI: The impact of the Crusades on Europe

IX: The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades, 1451-1522,   pp. 311-353 PDF (14.1 MB)

Page 312

issued threats and even launched attacks against the Ottomans. In Anatolia
Ibrahim Beg of Karaman not only seized control of several fortresses in the
Hamid area, but also encouraged pretenders to intensify their activities
in the provinces of Germiyan, Aydin, and Menteshe. Under these threatening
circumstances Mehmed II moved to confirm the treaties made during his father's
reign with the Serbs and the Byzantines. He agreed to cede Alaja-Hisar (Krushevats)
and some other frontier fortresses to the Serbian despot George Brankovich
(1427— 1456). As for the Byzantine emperor Constantine XI (1448—
1453), not only did he take control of areas extending as far as Chorlu,
but he also demanded that a yearly payment of 300,000 akcha should be paid
to meet the expenses of the pretender Orkhan Chelebi, who was sequestered
in Constantinople. 
 Mehmed sent Karaja Pasha to Sofia to counter a possible attack by the Hungarians,
while he himself set out with the army in May to deal with the situation
in Anatolia. As Mehmed marched eastward the Byzantine envoys made new demands
on him, threatening to release the pretender Orkhan Chelebi. By ceding the
port and fortress of Alanya, Mehmed sought to make a peaceful settlement
with the Karamanid Ibrahim Beg, and he made preparations for a prompt return
to Adrianople (Edirne). When the janissaries demanded increased wages, he
reorganized the corps, giving decisive evidence of his resoluteness and power.
But as a ghazi leader he needed prompt military 
book in Turkish on Mehmed; Ibn-Kemgl, Tevârikh-i Al-i Osman, Defter
VII, ed. Serafeddin Turan (Ankara, 1954), the most important compilation
by an Ottoman historian; Inalcik, Fâtih devri üzerinde tetkikler
ye vesikalar, I (Ankara, 1954), emphasizing Christian timar-holders in Mehmed
II's early years; Babinger, Mehmed the Conqueror and his Time, tr. Ralph
Manheim, ed. William C. Hickman (Princeton, 1978), with added footnotes on
works published after the original 1953 German edition; reviewed by Inalcik
in Speculum, XXXV (1960), 408-427; and Inalcik, "Mehmed II," in Islam Ansikiopedisi,
VII (1955), 506—535. 
 On Jem see Louis Thuasne, Djem-Sultan (Paris, 1892), still the basic work,
well documented; Hans Pfefferman, Die Zusammenarbeit der Renaissancepäpste
mit den Türken (Winterthur, 1946); Ismail H. Ertaylan, Sultan Gem (Istanbul,
1951); Babinger, Spatmittelalterlichefrankische Briefschaften aus dem grossherrlichen
Seraj zu Stanbul (Munich, 1963); Inalcik, "A Case Study in Renaissance Diplomacy:
the Agreement between Innocent VIII and Bayezid II on Djem Sultan," Journal
of Turkish Studies, III (1979), 209—230; and J. Lefort, Documents grecs
dans les archives de Topkapi Sarayi, contribution a l'histoire de Gem Sultan
(Ankara, 1981). 
 For military technology see David Ayalon, Gunpowder and Firearms in the
Mamluk Kingdom: a Challenge to a Medieval Society (London, 1956), reviewed
by Inalcik in Belleten, XXI (1957), 501-512; Dj. Petroviá, "Firearms
in the Balkans," in War, Technology, and Society in the Middle East, ed.
Vernon J. Parry and Malcolm E. Yapp (London, 1975), pp. 164-194; Inalcik,
"The Socio-political Effects of the Diffusion of Firearms in the Middle East,"
ibid., pp. 195— 217; and the old but still useful article by John H.
Lefroy, "The Great Cannon of Muhammad II. (A.D. 1464), Recently Presented
to the British Government by the Sultan ...," The Archaeological Journal,
XXV (1868), 261—280. 

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