Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume VI: The impact of the Crusades on Europe
VII: The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades, 1329-1451, pp. 222-275 PDF (18.9 MB)
272 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES the Ottomans both promised not to cross the Danube to attack. The Serbian despot was to remain under the sultan's suzerainty as a tributary prince. Viad Dracul was included in the peace treaty as an Ottoman tributary prince but under Hungarian protection. The sultan solemnly ratified the treaty by oath in the presence of the ambassadors. In order to take the oaths from the king, the despot, and Hunyadi and to implement the surrender of the fortresses in Serbia to the despot, the sultan sent Balta-oghlu Suleiman'5° to Hungary. By the peace treaty Hungary had attained the objectives it had pursued for decades. Beyond this, any continuation of war would have to be a real crusade to eliminate Ottoman rule in the Balkans and rescue Constantinople. Already, however, on April 15, 1444, the king had given his oath in the presence of cardinal-legate Cesarini to continue the crusade that summer.'5' But there was strong opposition in Hungary to the continuation of the war. In April the Hungarian diet did not approve the preparations for war. Those in favor of peace gave priority to improvement of internal conditions in Hungary and Poland, while the war party believed in the potential success of a crusade and its advantages for the king's position in Hungary. The pope's legate Cesarini and John de' Reguardati, the Venetian envoy in Buda, vigorously supported the partisans of war. Already, in the winter, the Venetian senate had formally notified the king of its resolution to join the crusade and send a fleet to the Straits to cut off Ottoman communications between Asia and Europe; this fleet left Venice on June 15, 1444. At this point Venice expected the imminent collapse of the Ottoman empire, and planned to occupy Gallipoli, Thessalonica, Albania, and even some ports on the Black Sea. The news of the departure of the fleet reached Hungary in July and definitely had a strong influence on the decision to go to war. In his letter dated July 30, 1444, John VIII Palaeologus told the king that it was the most opportune moment to destroy the Ottomans, since Murad II had crossed over to Anatolia, and that the peace treaty had thus served its real purpose. Despot Constantine in the Morea promised his military coöperation with the crusaders, and had already taken the offensive. Byzantine diplomacy also appears to have been responsible for the coöperation of the Karamanids with the despot and Hungary.'52 Within the Balkans Scanderbeg and Ghin Zenevisi in Albania, as well as the Albanians and Vlachs in Thessaly, were in rebellion, and king Tvrtko II 150. Later, in 1453, the Ottoman admiral at the siege of Constantinople. 151. See above, note 142. 152. Inalcik, Fâtih devri, p. 33.
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