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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / Volume VI: The impact of the Crusades on Europe
(1989)

VII: The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades, 1329-1451,   pp. 222-275 PDF (18.9 MB)


Page 271

 Ch. VII THE OTTOMAN TURKS AND THE CRUSADES, 1329-1451 271 149. For the treaty
of Adrianople (or Szegedin) and the period between 1443 and 1451 ingeneral,
see Inalcik, Fâtih devri dzerinde tetkikler ye vesikalar (Ankara, 1954).
the long retreat under constant attack by the harassing Ottoman forces. On
January 2, 1444, at the mountain pass at Kunovitsa, between Pirot and Nish,
Hunyadi inflicted a defeat on the pursuing Ottoman army; among the captives
was Mahmud, husband of the sultan's sister. The retreating crusader army
reached Belgrade on January 25. When he reached Buda safely the king dismounted
and went barefoot to the church in gratitude to God. The pope sent a consecrated
cap and sword to the king, and throughout Europe the victory was celebrated
with great joy and religious fervor. Never before had a Christian army advanced
so deep into Ottoman territory. Following the crusade, the Ottoman military
structure throughout the Balkans seemed to dissolve as local lords in Ottoman
service tried to gain their independence, among them Scanderbeg in Albania
and despot Constantine Palaeologus in the Morea. Viad II Dracul turned against
the Ottomans and recognized Hungarian suzerainty, thus impairing the Ottoman
position in Bulgaria. 
 During the summer of 1444 there was panic among the Turks in Rumelia and,
as Ghazavat put it, the well-to-do were leaving Rumelia for Anatolia. There,
however, the Karamanid Ibrahim Beg had renewed his attack and occupied the
territory in dispute in the spring of 1444. 
 The sultan had made contact with the king of Hungary as early as January
1444, promising to revive the Serbian despotate as a buffer between the two
countries.'49 The sultan's wife Mara, George Brankovich's daughter, played
an important role in the opening of negotiations in March and April of 1444.
Hoping to recover his despotate, Brankovich did everything possible to realize
this peace. He attempted to persuade Hunyadi to work for peace by giving
up to him his own small domain in Hungary (Vilagos and 120 villages). Actually,
Hunyadi agreed to this to gain time to prepare the crusade. "The long campaign"
was to be completed in 1444, and the Ottomans driven out of the Balkans.
Later, Hunyadi was to be promised the kingdom of Bulgaria. It is obvious
that for him "peace" was a war trick. 
 The Hungarian-Serbian embassy to the sultan concluded a peace treaty in
Adrianople on June 12, 1444. The sultan had to agree to the revival of the
Serbian despotate, which had been annexed to the Ottoman empire in 1439.
The Ottomans even had to surrender Golubats, the principal Ottoman fortress
on the Danube since 1427. In return, the king recognized Ottoman rule over
Bulgaria. The Hungarians and 


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